13. MOVEMENT
13.1 ORDER OF MOVEMENT
13.2 VOLUNTARY ELIMINATION OF UNITS
13.3 ACTIVITIES PRIOR TO GROUND MOVEMENT
13.4 GROUND MOVEMENT
13.5 OVERRUNS

13.1 ORDER OF MOVEMENT:
13.11 AIR UNITS, NAVAL UNITS, GROUND UNITS: During the movement phase, a player may move all, some or none of his units. A player first moves his air units, then his naval units, then his ground units.

13.2 VOLUNTARY ELIMINATION OF UNITS:
13.21 VOLUNTARY ELIMINATION OF UNITS: Subject to the restrictions set out below, a major power may voluntarily eliminate its own or an active minor ally’s or associated minor country’s ground or air units and any partisans it controls and return them to its force pool immediately before beginning its movement phase and at the end of its redeployment phase (28.91).
13.22 RESTRICTIONS:
A. A neutral major country may not voluntarily eliminate units.
B. Minor country units, including Vichy French units, may not be voluntarily eliminated prior to activation or association.
C. Naval units may not be voluntarily eliminated once launched.
D. Airbase counters may not be voluntarily eliminated, but may be “recycled” each turn (18.143).
13.23 RECONSTRUCTION: Units may be reconstructed in the game turn in which they are voluntarily eliminated at double the normal BRP cost (27.13A).

13.3 ACTIVITIES PRIOR TO GROUND MOVEMENT:
13.31 AIR UNITS: Air units may stage (change base) during the movement phase (18.2). Counterair missions (18.52) may be conducted after the staging of air units and before the movement of naval units and supply determination.
13.32 NAVAL UNITS: Naval units may conduct patrols (21.41) or change base (21.22) during the movement phase and are subject to interception by enemy air (23.7) and naval units (22.1). Sea transport is conducted during the movement phase (21.43).
13.33 SUPPLY: Supply is determined during the movement phase, after air and naval movement, but before ground movement (30.42).

13.4 GROUND MOVEMENT:
13.41 MOVEMENT GOVERNED BY MOVEMENT FACTOR: During the movement phase of each turn, every ground unit may move up to the limit of its movement factor, subject to the following:
A. SUPPLY REQUIRED: Ground units which are out of supply may not move (30.531).
B. BASIC MOVEMENT COST: Ground units must expend one movement factor to enter a clear terrain hex.
C. ROUGH TERRAIN: Ground units must expend an additional movement factor to enter forest, jungle, mountain, jungle/mountain or swamp hexes (EXCEPTIONS: Japanese ground units and the Chindit do not expend an additional movement factor to enter jungle hexes but must expend an additional movement factor to enter jungle/mountain hexes).
D. ZoCs: In the European theater, a ground unit must expend two additional movement factors to leave a hex in the ZoC of a hostile armor unit or to move from one such hex to another (EXCEPTION: Russian surprise effects - 63.51F). In the Pacific theater, a ground unit must expend one additional movement factor to leave a hex in the ZoC of a hostile armor unit, or to move from one such hex to another. There is no extra cost to enter a ZoC. ZoCs have no effect on the movement of air and naval units.
E. OVERRUNS: Ground units must expend one additional movement factor to execute an overrun (13.52).
F. MOVEMENT FACTORS OF MECHANIZED UNITS: Armor and mechanized infantry that are partially supplied have their movement factor reduced to three in Europe and two in the Pacific. Army oil effects may also reduce the movement factor of armor units by negating their mechanized component (10.32). No distinction is made between mechanized and non-mechanized infantry units in the Pacific theater: all British and American infantry units have a movement factor of two.
13.411 SUPPLIED UNITS MAY ALWAYS MOVE ONE HEX: A supplied ground unit may always move at least one hex during both regular and exploitation movement, regardless of terrain, enemy ZoCs, movement reductions to European Axis armor units exploiting from ICs or objectives in Russia, weather and oil effects. This does not apply to units conducting overruns, does not permit movement into ineligible hexes, and does not allow sea or air transport by ground units with an insufficient movement factor.
13.42 MOVEMENT FACTORS MAY NOT BE TRANSFERRED OR SAVED: Movement factors may not be transferred from one ground unit to another, nor may they be accumulated from one turn to the next.
13.43 MOVEMENT ACROSS CERTAIN HEXSIDES PROHIBITED: Ground movement across the following hexsides is prohibited:
A. OCEANS AND LAKES: All-ocean and all-lake hexsides, except at a crossing arrow.
B. QATTARA DEPRESSION: All-Qattara depression hexsides (MM26-NN26 and NN25-NN26).
C. HIMALAYAS: All-Himalaya hexsides, including R15 (Ledo)-R16.
D. OUTBACK: All-outback hexsides (4.43, 71.81).
13.44 MOVEMENT OFF THE BOARD: Ground units may move onto or leave the mapboard during the movement phase only if expressly allowed by the rules relating to the mapboard box in question (see rule 5). Ground units may only leave the mapboard if they have sufficient movement capability to do so. All off-board hexes are considered to be clear terrain for movement purposes. Ground movement between mapboard boxes during the movement phase is prohibited.
13.45 GROUND UNITS MAY MOVE TOGETHER: Ground units may be moved together, both for convenience and to execute overruns (13.5). A ground unit may also defer part of its movement to wait for another ground unit to move, then continue its movement, alone or in conjunction with the other unit, up to the limit of its movement factor.
13.46 MOVEMENT INTO OCCUPIED HEXES PROHIBITED EXCEPT FOR OVERRUNS: Ground units may not move onto or through hexes occupied by hostile ground units except when conducting overruns (EXCEPTION: Airborne units may airdrop atop hostile ground units - an offensive operation which is quite different from movement).
13.47 WEATHER EFFECTS: When a ground unit enters an area affected by weather, it must abide by the weather restrictions while it remains in the affected area. Similarly, if a unit leaves an affected area, it regains any movement factors and abilities lost to the weather restrictions of that area.
EXAMPLE: A German 4-6 armor unit is exploiting on the Mediterranean front during winter. It crosses onto the eastern front, where exploitation out of mountain hexes is prohibited in winter (34.23B). If the armor unit enters a mountain hex on the eastern front, it can exploit no further. If it instead crosses a clear hex on the eastern front and enters a mountain hex on the Mediterranean front, it may continue to exploit normally.

13.5 OVERRUNS:
13.51 RESTRICTIONS: Overruns are an offensive operation that may only be conducted by armor and mechanized infantry units. Overruns may take place during the movement phase of both regular and exploitation movement. Units being overrun are subject to both positive and negative DMs in the same manner as units being attacked (15.3).
13.52 MECHANICS: Overruns are conducted by moving no more than two armor or mechanized infantry units through the same hexside into a hex containing enemy unit(s) at odds of 6:1 or greater. At least one of the overrunning units must be an armor unit; both overrunning units must have a functional mechanized component. Each overrunning unit must expend one additional movement point to occupy the overrun hex. If the units do not have sufficient movement points, the overrun is prohibited.
13.521 Units performing overruns may arrive at the hex from which the overrun is made from different locations. A sea-transported unit may overrun in conjunction with another unit; armor units exploiting from different breakthrough hexes may combine to overrun units.
13.522 No more than two armor units may move from a breakthrough hex into the same adjacent hex to conduct an overrun against enemy ground units in that hex.
13.53 AIR SUPPORT: An overrun may be assisted by available offensive ground support whether the overrun occurs during movement or exploitation. The defender may provide defensive air support to units being overrun. This defensive air support may be intercepted by uncommitted offensive air units within range at the time of the overrun. The resulting air combat is resolved immediately. Sea transported air may assist overruns only from their hex of debarkation. Air units which participate in successful overruns are inverted the moment the overrun is concluded.
13.531 FAILED OVERRUNS: If enough defensive air support survives interception to reduce the overrun odds below 6:1, no overrun occurs in that hex during the movement phase. The ground units which attempted the overrun remain in the hex from which they attempted the overrun. Any overstacking in that hex must be remedied before the end of the movement phase or exploitation movement, as the case may be, or any excess units are eliminated (12.15). A second attempt to overrun that hex is not permitted. In the ensuing combat phase, ground units which attempted the overrun and any air units which provided ground support for the unsuccessful overrun must conduct a normal attack against the defending unit(s). The attacking ground and air units may be assisted in their attack by other units. The defensive air used to prevent the overrun remains in place and participates in the ground attack during the combat phase.
13.532 Airdrops may not be used to assist overruns during the movement phase, but may be used during the combat phase to assist attacks resulting from a failed overrun (13.531).
13.54 CASUALTIES: Units which are overrun are eliminated and are immediately removed from the board. The moving player suffers no losses.
13.55 SUBSEQUENT MOVEMENT AND COMBAT: After an overrun, surviving overrunning units may, if otherwise able to do so:
A. Continue moving up to their movement allowance.
B. Overrun other enemy units.
C. Participate in ground or attrition combat after movement is completed.
D. Conduct exploitation movement and combat.
13.56 NO MOVEMENT COST FOR OTHER UNITS: Other units which have not yet completed their movement may enter a hex which was the scene of an earlier overrun without paying the additional movement cost required by 13.52.
13.57 WEATHER: Winter effects and mud may prohibit overruns in certain areas (34).
13.58 SEABORNE INVASION: Units conducting seaborne invasions (21.51) may not overrun the beach hex, but invading armor units which exploit off the beach hex may conduct overruns further inland.
13.59 NO SPECIAL STATUS FOR DEFENDING UNITS: Units in capitals, objective hexes, ICs, bridgeheads, railheads, fortresses and fortifications may be overrun if all other requirements are met.