14. ATTRITION COMBAT
14.1 OVERVIEW
14.2 DETERMINING ATTRITION LEVELS
14.3 SEPARATE ATTRITIONS
14.4 RESOLVING ATTRITION COMBAT
14.5 ATTRITION COMBAT RESULTS - COUNTERS
14.6 ATTRITION COMBAT RESULTS - HEXES
14.7 ATTRITION RETREATS

14.1 OVERVIEW:
14.11 OUTLINE OF ATTRITION COMBAT: Attrition combat is resolved as follows:
A. The attacker counts the number of ground combat factors adjacent to enemy units and makes a die roll on the Attrition Table.
B. The defender removes the required number of units.
C. The attacker selects the permitted number of hexes for attrition occupation.
D. The defender retreats his units from the hexes selected for attrition occupation.
E. The attacker occupies the hexes selected for attrition occupation.
14.12 TIMING: Attrition combat is resolved after all regular and exploitation combat has been resolved.
14.13 ALLIANCE FACTIONS ATTRITION(ED) SEPARATELY: For each enemy alliance faction attrition zone being attritioned, attrition combat is resolved by and against each alliance faction separately. Each turn only one attrition die roll may be made by each alliance faction against each enemy alliance faction attrition zone.

14.2 DETERMINING ATTRITION LEVELS:
14.21 ATTRITION LEVELS: For each attrition, the attacker totals the number of ground combat factors adjacent to enemy ground units for each enemy attrition zone on the front in question to determine the attrition level against each enemy alliance faction.
14.211 ATTRITION ZONES: Each area of contiguous hexes on the same front controlled by the same alliance faction is considered to be a single attrition zone, regardless of the presence of enemy ZoCs which may interrupt supply to parts of the attrition zone. (EXCEPTIONS: In winter turns, the Balkans and European Turkey are in a separate attrition zone from Asiatic Turkey; in fall and winter turns, Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia and Tannu Tuva are in a separate attrition zone from the rest of the Asian front). This determination is made at the start of the attritioning player’s turn, prior to ground movement.
14.212 AIRDROPS: An area of contiguous hexes on the same front controlled by the same alliance faction that contains airborne or Chindit units which airdropped in the previous player turn but no other friendly ground units is part of the attrition zone from which the units airdropped, provided that attrition zone is on the same front as the units in question.
14.213 The attacker may choose not to include eligible ground units in an attrition.

There are several reasons a player might leave some ground units out of an attrition. One would be to raise the CTL of his attritioning forces (14.42). Another would be to reduce the opponent's ability to take his attrition losses from certain nationalities (14.52). Finally, if all the enemy ground units are out of supply, the attritioning player might prefer to eliminate them by isolation so their reconstruction cost will be doubled (27.13A).

14.22 ELIGIBLE UNITS: The following units may be counted when determining attrition levels, subject to 14.23:
A. Ground units adjacent to enemy ground units on the same front when the attrition die roll is made, whether the attritioning ground units are supplied or not.
B. Ground units on other fronts which are adjacent to enemy ground units on the attritioned front.
14.23 INELIGIBLE UNITS: The following units are not counted when determining attrition levels:
A. Ground units which took part in offensive operations during that combat phase, including seaborne invasions of undefended hexes, airdrops onto undefended hexes, and exploitation, regardless of front.
B. Ground units counted in determining another attrition level, whether on the same or on another front. Ground units may not be counted for more than one attrition level in the same game turn.
C. Ground units which are not adjacent to enemy ground units because of impassable hexsides, including all-water hexsides without a crossing arrow.
D. Ground units adjacent to enemy units only across a fortified enemy hexside, whether or not the fortification has been negated by isolation. Ground units may attrition across their own fortified hexsides.

Units in an omnidirectional fortification or fortress may never be attritioned. Units in Maginot and West Wall hexes may not be attritioned by enemy units facing their fortifications.

E. Ground units adjacent only to partisans, flak, ground units which they may not attack because of resistance, cooperation, neutrality or diplomatic restrictions, or enemy units other than ground units.
F. Partisans, replacements, flak, air and naval units.
14.24 GIBRALTAR: Gibraltar is on the Mediterranean front for attrition purposes.

14.3 SEPARATE ATTRITIONS:
14.31 ALLIANCE FACTIONS ATTRITION(ED) SEPARATELY: A separate attrition level is determined and separate attrition combat die roll made by each alliance faction against each enemy alliance faction attrition zone on each front. Thus Western Allied and Russian ground units attrition separately and are subject to separate Axis attritions. Similarly, Nationalist and Communist China attrition separately and are subject to separate Japanese attritions. All ground factors for each alliance faction are totaled together and a single attrition die roll is made against each enemy alliance faction in each attrition zone.
14.32 MINOR COUNTRIES: Minor allies and associated minor countries are considered part of their major power's alliance faction, and their ground units are counted when determining their major power's alliance faction's attrition level. Ground units adjacent to enemy minor allied or associated minor country ground units are similarly counted in determining the attrition level against that enemy alliance faction.
14.33 INDEPENDENT MINOR COUNTRIES: Prior to activation or association, minor countries are attritioned separately. A separate attrition die roll is made against each such minor country.

14.4 RESOLVING ATTRITION COMBAT:
14.41 ATTRITION TABLE: To resolve each attrition combat the attacker rolls one die and consults the appropriate column on the Attrition Table. The result indicates the number of unit counters (C) which the defender must lose and the number of hexes (H) which he must give up to the attacker.

Attrition Table - 14.41

 

1-10

11-20

21-30

31-40

41-50

51-60

61+

0

-

-

1C

2C

2C/1H

3C/2H

5C/2H

1

-

1C

2C

1C/1H

3C/1H

4C/2H

5C/3H

2

-

1C

2C

2C/1H

3C/2H

5C/2H

6C/3H

3

-

2C

1C/1H

3C/1H

4C/2H

5C/3H

7C/3H

4

-

2C

2C/1H

3C/2H

5C/2H

6C/3H

7C/4H

5

1C

1C/1H

3C/1H

4C/2H

5C/3H

7C/3H

8C/4H

6

1C

2C/1H

3C/2H

5C/2H

6C/3H

7C/4H

9C/4H

7

2C

3C/1H

4C/2H

5C/3H

7C/3H

8C/4H

9C/5H

8

2C

3C/2H

5C/2H

6C/3H

7C/4H

9C/4H

10C/5H

9

1C/1H

4C/2H

5C/3H

7C/3H

8C/4H

9C/5H

11C/5H

10

2C/1H

5C/2H

6C/3H

7C/4H

9C/4H

10C/5H

11C/6H

11

3C/1H

5C/3H

7C/3H

8C/4H

9C/5H

11C/5H

12C/6H

Modifiers

+1

For every ten attritioning factors over 61

+/-#

Difference in CTLs

+/-#

Difference in winter preparation levels (turns in which winter effects apply only)

Explanations

The attritioning player receives a favorable modifier if the number of attritioning factors exceeds 70 (71-80: +1; 81-90: +2; 91-100: +3; 101-110: +4; 111-120: +5; 121-130: +6; etc.)

When determining the difference in CTLs, the CTL used for each side is that of the greatest number of factors involved in the attrition: use the lower level if tied.

Asia: For attritions conducted on the Pacific mapboard, the number of hexes captured is reduced by half (round down).


14.42 ATTRITION MODIFIERS: The attacker's attrition die roll is:
A. GROUND FACTORS: Increased by one for every ten ground factors over 61 in contact with the defender (71-80 factors, +1; 81-90 factors, +2; and so on).
B. CTL: Increased or decreased by the difference in CTLs between the units involved. A higher CTL increases the attrition die roll and a lower CTL decreases the attrition die roll. If a player has units with different CTLs engaged in attrition combat, the CTL of the largest number of factors engaged is used to determine this modifier, with the less favorable CTL applying if equal numbers of factors are engaged.
C. WINTER PREPARATION: Increased or decreased by the difference in winter preparation level between the units involved. A more favorable winter preparation level increases the attrition die roll and a less favorable winter preparation level decreases the attrition die roll. When determining this modifier, winter preparation levels are limited to the winter level which applies to the area in which the defending units are located. No winter preparation modifiers apply to units being attritioned in areas which are not subject to winter effects, such as North Africa and the Middle East. If a player has units with different winter preparation levels engaged in attrition combat, the winter preparation level of the largest number of factors engaged is used to determine this modifier, with the less favorable winter preparation level applying if equal numbers of factors are engaged.

The limit on the winter preparation modifier referred to in 14.42C applies most commonly in the Balkans, which has an automatic winter level of "4" (34.32A). The Russian winter preparation level of "6" is therefore considered to be only "4" in the Balkans, as nothing more is required to reach a "No effect" result on the Winter Table. Similarly - and not surprisingly - winter preparation levels do not modify attritions in areas such as Egypt or Burma, which are not subject to winter effects.

14.43 MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM RESULTS: Attrition results of less than "0" are treated as "0" results; results of more than "11+" are treated as "11+" results for all columns. The maximum possible result on the Attrition Table is "12C/6H" in Europe, which is equivalent to "12C/3H" in the Pacific.
EXAMPLES: Assuming no CTL research results:
If 21 German ground factors and 12 Italian ground factors attrition in Russia, the Axis get a +1 modifier for their attrition die roll, because the largest group of Axis ground factors (German) have a CTL of two and the Russian CTL is one.
If 14 German ground factors and 14 Italian ground factors attritioned, the lower (Italian) CTL would apply, and the Axis would not get a modifier.
If 14 German, 12 Italian and 3 partially supplied Italian ground factors attritioned, the German CTL of two would determine the modifier, because there would be 12 Italian ground factors with a CTL of one and 3 Italian ground factors with a CTL of zero (30.522A).

14.44 SELECTING A "2C" RESULT IN PLACE OF A "1C/1H" RESULT: An attacker who obtains a "1C/1H" result may take a "2C" result instead. All other attrition results stand.

14.5 ATTRITION COMBAT RESULTS - COUNTERS:
14.51 ATTRITION COMBAT RESULTS - COUNTERS: Once the attrition combat result is determined, the defender chooses which ground units to eliminate, removes them from the board and returns them to his force pool. He may not choose to lose more ground units than the number called for. If he does not have enough eligible ground units to satisfy the losses, he loses what ground units he has and disregards the remainder.
14.52 RESTRICTIONS ON LOSSES:
A. LOCATION: Ground units removed to satisfy attrition losses must be taken from:
EXAMPLES: The Axis attrition Russia on the eastern front. Russian attrition losses must be taken from the Russian front.
Russian units have entered Rumania from the eastern front. The Axis attrition the Russian units in Rumania. The Russian attrition losses may be taken from the Russian units in Rumania or Russia.
Britain attritions Italy in North Africa. Italian attrition losses must be taken from North Africa unless the Axis traced full supply to North Africa in the previous Axis player turn, which would allow the Italians to take attrition losses from units in Italy.
The Western Allies invade two separate beaches in France from bases in Britain. Germany conducts separate attritions against each Western Allied bridgehead. Because the Western Allied bridgeheads in France reflect sea supply from Britain, the Western Allied attrition losses may be taken from Western Allied units in Britain as well as the Western Allied units in France.
The Western Allies attrition Japanese units in Burma. Japanese attrition losses must be taken from the attrition zone including Burma or, if Japan had traced full supply to that supply zone in its previous player turn from Japan, from Japan.

B. INELIGIBLE UNITS: Units which are in a mapboard box or off-board area may not be taken as attrition losses (EXCEPTIONS: Attrition losses from attrition zones including the Australia (71.31), India (72.31) and Urals (81.68) boxes).
C. CONTACT REQUIRED: The number of counters which may be lost from attrition by a given nationality is limited to the number of counters that nationality has in contact with the attritioning forces, although the eliminated units themselves need not be in contact with enemy units.
14.521 RUSSIAN WINTER ATTRITIONS: If Russia attritions on the eastern front east of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line in a winter turn, Russia may designate hexes from which Axis attrition losses must be taken and hexes to be captured by attrition occupation, as follows:
A. Each hex designated must contain at least one Axis ground unit, be adjacent to an attritioning Russian ground unit, and be in the Russian winter zone (34.32C).
B. Hexes designated for attrition losses must have been subject to attrition combat. Fortified hexes may not be designated. The total number of hexes designated for attrition losses may not exceed the "C" result achieved by the attrition.
C. Hexes designated for attrition occupation must be eligible for attrition occupation (14.62). The total number of hexes designated for attrition occupation may not exceed the "H" result achieved by the attrition.
D. The total number of hexes designated for attrition losses and attrition occupation for all Russian attritions may not exceed the difference in winter levels applying to Russia and Germany. This limit applies to the combined total, not to attrition losses and attrition occupation separately.
E. Hexes may not be designated for both attrition losses and attrition occupation.
F. Hexes containing only Finnish and Swedish units may not be designated.
G. The Axis must eliminate one ground unit from each hex designated for attrition losses. Until the Axis winter preparation level has reached its maximum level of six, other Axis attrition losses must be taken from eligible Axis ground units within three hexes by land of an attritioned Axis ground unit. Attrition losses may be taken from hexes which have been designated for attrition losses, to prevent their occupation, but may not be taken from hexes designated for attrition occupation.
H. Russia must occupy hexes designated for attrition occupation once the Axis player has taken all his attrition losses. All other “H” results are implemented normally. Russia may occupy hexes which have been designated for attrition losses provided they contain at least one Axis ground unit after the Axis player has taken all his attrition losses.
14.522 NATIONALITIES FOR ATTRITION PURPOSES: Minor country units, Free French units (58.624), post-surrender Italian units and British Commonwealth units (82.13), are con­sidered to be distinct national­ities for attrition purposes. The number of such ground units which may be taken as attrition losses is therefore limited to the number of units in contact with attritioning enemy units (14.52C), although ground units other than those in contact with the enemy may be taken as losses.
14.523 EFFECT ON COUNTERS: If all ground units in a hex are removed to satisfy attrition losses, any airbase or rocket base in that hex is also eliminated.

14.6 ATTRITION COMBAT RESULTS - HEXES:
14.61 ATTRITION OCCUPATION: After the defender has eliminated the required units, the attacker selects one or more eligible hexes for occupation as allowed by the attrition die roll (EXCEPTION: 14.65). The attacker need not select all, or any, of the hexes to which he is entitled by an "H" attrition combat result. Hexes selected for attrition occupation must contain a non-partisan enemy ground unit and must be adjacent to an attritioning ground unit which is eligible to advance. Partisans, which do not participate in attritions, are ignored. Ground units which were unsupplied during initial supply determination or which did not participate in the attrition are not eligible to advance.
14.62 HEXES NOT ELIGIBLE FOR ATTRITION OCCUPATION: The following hexes may not be selected for attrition occupation:
A. Hexes which do not contain a non-partisan ground unit.
B. A hex from which the defender has taken all the attrition losses inflicted on him by the attacker's attrition die roll for that attrition zone, even if the defender has non-partisan ground units remaining in the hex after taking the losses, provided the defender takes the ground unit(s) with the largest ground combat factor(s) as losses from the hex. If there is more than one ground unit with the same combat factor, the defender decides which unit to remove.
C. A hex containing a capital, objective, IC, fortress, fortification, railhead or bridgehead placed as a result of attacking across a river or crossing-arrow (31.23 - bridgeheads placed as a result of a seaborne invasion may be selected for attrition occupation). Luxembourg, which does not have a capital, may be selected for attrition occupation. Maginot and West Wall hexes may be occupied by units attritioning across their unfortified hexsides, but units attritioning across fortified hexsides may not occupy Maginot or West Wall hexes, even in conjunction with attrition occupation across an unfortified hexside.
D. A forest, jungle, mountain, jungle/mountain or swamp hex (EXCEPTIONS: Japanese ground units and the Chindit may occupy jungle hexes by attrition; frozen swamp hexes (34.23C) are treated as clear hexes and may be occupied by attrition).
E. A hex which may only be occupied through a hexside containing a river or crossing arrow. Hexes bounded by rivers or crossing arrows may be occupied by units attritioning across other hexsides which permit attrition occupation, but units attritioning across river hexsides or crossing arrows may not occupy such hexes, even in conjunction with attrition occupation across a different hexside.
EXAMPLES: The Axis player has two 3-3 infantry units on a key hex. The Allies make an attrition die roll in the "11-20" column. If the modified die roll is a "6" (a "2C/1H" result), the Axis player retains control of the key hex by eliminating both units on the hex. If the die roll had been a "5" (a "1C/1H" result), the Axis player could still retain control of the hex by eliminating one of the infantry units.
The Japanese player has two 3-2 infantry units and a 1-2 airborne unit in a key hex. The Allies make an attrition die roll in the "21-30" column. If the modified die roll is a "6" (a "3C/1H" result after halving the number of hexes for the Asian theater), the Japanese player may retain control of the key hex by eliminating all three units in the hex.

14.63 A hex which was the subject of a limited offensive attack is not automatically immune to attrition capture unless the attack eliminated all the defending ground units in the hex.
14.64 The attacker must advance at least one adjacent ground unit into each selected hex. If the attacker is unable or unwilling to advance into an enemy-occupied hex, he may not select that hex for attrition occupation.
14.65 ELIMINATION OF ALL DEFENDING UNITS IN AN ATTRITION ZONE: If all the non-partisan ground units in an attrition zone are eliminated as a result of attrition combat, all hexes in that attrition zone adjacent to attritioning units may be occupied by attrition advance regardless of the presence of defender counters and the number of "H" attrition results, subject to the restrictions on attrition occupation in 14.62C-E.
EXAMPLE: In Spring 1943, the Western Allies invade France and capture a single hex with two ground units. In Summer 1943, Germany attritions the Western Allied bridgehead with 23 ground factors and obtains a "4" result - 2C/1H. The Western Allied player cannot hold the bridgehead, because if he take both losses from Britain, the 1H result allows the German player to select the invasion bridgehead for attrition occupation (14.62C does not apply to bridgeheads placed by seaborne invasion); and if both ground units in the bridgehead are eliminated, 14.65 applies.
Note that 14.65 does not apply to exploiting armor units, because they are part of the attrition zone from which they exploited, as attrition zones are determined before the defender moves (14.211) or to airborne units, which are part of the attrition zone from which they airdropped (14.212).

14.7 ATTRITION RETREATS:
14.71 ATTRITION RETREAT SIMULTANEOUS: Once the attacker has designated all the hexes he wishes to occupy, the defender simultaneously retreats all his displaced ground units one hex from the hexes selected for attrition occupation. The attacker then simultaneously occupies all the designated hexes. This process is not carried out one hex at a time; all hexes must be vacated before the attacker advances to occupy any of the vacated hexes.
14.72 HEXES NOT ELIGIBLE FOR ATTRITION RETREAT: The following hexes may not be selected for attrition retreat:
A. A hex occupied by an enemy ground, air or naval unit, flak unit, airbase counter, rocket base, bridgehead, port counter, railhead, IC, fortification or fortress.
B. A hex selected by the attacker for attrition occupation.
C. A hex which the attacker has vacated by advancing into a hex selected for attrition occupation.
D. A hex which the defender's units are prohibited from entering.
14.73 PRIORITY OF HEXES FOR RETREATING UNITS: If forced to do so, the defender may overstack, enter an enemy ZoC, or enter an enemy-controlled hex, in that order. The defender must select the least of the following evils and must avoid overstacking, entering an enemy ZoC or entering an enemy-controlled hex if possible:
A. Overstack (rather than enter an enemy ZoC);
B. Enter an enemy ZoC (rather than enter an enemy-controlled hex);
C. Enter an enemy-controlled hex, not in an enemy ZoC if possible (rather than be eliminated).
14.74 OVERSTACKING: If the defender overstacks when retreating, he must remedy the overstacking during his next movement phase. If he is unable to do so, excess units of his choice are eliminated (12.17).
14.75 Units retreating from the same hex may retreat to different hexes.
14.76 ELIMINATION OF UNITS UNABLE TO RETREAT: Defending units are eliminated if they are forced to retreat by attrition occupation and are unable to do so. Flak units are always eliminated if forced to retreat by attrition occupation (10.94).
14.77 DISPLACEMENT OF AIR AND NAVAL UNITS: Air and naval units which are based in hexes occupied by enemy units as a result of attrition combat are displaced to the nearest friendly base within range (18.25, 21.23).