19. AIR COMBAT
19.1 RESOLVING AIR COMBAT
19.2 AIR COMBAT TABLE
19.3 AIR COMBAT MODIFIERS
19.4 AIR COMBAT RESOLUTION
19.5 ARMY AND NAVAL AIR COMBAT
19.6 AIR LOSSES FROM MIXED FORCES

19.1 RESOLVING AIR COMBAT:
19.11 MULTIPLE ROUNDS OF AIR COMBAT: Air combat consists of one or more air combat rounds and normally continues until one side or the other is eliminated or withdraws.
19.12 SINGLE ROUND OF AIR COMBAT: Air combat against air transports arising out of the interception of air transport missions, air attacks on naval units at sea and strategic bombing are resolved by a single round of air combat. Counterair air combat arising out of carrier-based air strikes against land bases and land-based air attacks against naval bases is resolved by a single round of air combat. A naval patrol en route to its patrol hex may engage in one round of counterair air combat from each hex it enters.

19.2 AIR COMBAT TABLE:
19.21 AIR ATTACK DICE ROLLS: In each round of air combat, each side rolls two dice and consults the Air Combat Table.

Air Combat Table - 19.2

AF
AS

Dice Roll

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12+

1

0

0

0/1

0/1

1/0

1/0

1/1

1/1

1/2

1/2

1/3

2

0/1

0/1

1/0

1/0

1/1

1/1

1/2

1/2

1/3

1/3

2/2

3

1/0

1/0

1/1

1/1

1/2

1/2

1/3

1/3

2/2

2/3

2/4

4

1/1

1/1

1/2

1/2

1/3

1/3

2/2

2/3

2/4

3/3

3/4

5

1/2

1/2

1/3

1/3

2/2

2/3

2/4

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

6

1/2

1/3

1/3

2/2

2/3

2/4

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

7

1/3

1/3

2/2

2/3

2/4

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

8

1/3

2/2

2/3

2/4

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

9

2/2

2/3

2/4

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

10

2/3

2/4

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

11

2/4

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

12

3/3

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

13

3/4

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

14

3/5

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

7/7

15

4/4

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

7/7

7/8

16

4/5

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

7/7

7/8

7/9

17

4/6

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

7/7

7/8

7/9

8/8

18

5/5

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

7/7

7/8

7/9

8/8

8/9

19

5/6

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

7/7

7/8

7/9

8/8

8/9

8/10

20

5/7

6/6

6/7

6/8

7/7

7/8

7/9

8/8

8/9

8/10

9/9

Modifiers - Air Combat

   +/-#       Air Nationality DRM

   +/-1       for each jet factor or three jet squadrons engaged

   +/-1       combat involving CAP

   +/-1       each radar research result achieved by the defender (air combat arising from strategic bombing only)

If more than 20 air factors engage in combat, the result is deter¬mined by consulting the "20" row and whatever other row is required to equal the total number of air factors engaged. The dice roll is not modified by the number of air factors over 20.

Results: The number before the slash is the number of enemy air factors which are eliminated. The number after the slash is the number of enemy air factors which are forced to abort.



19.3 AIR COMBAT MODIFIERS:
19.31 MODIFIERS: Each side's air combat dice roll is subject to the following modifiers. A positive net modifier for air combat for one side results in an equal negative net modifier for the other side:
A. The relative Air Nationality modifiers, as set out in the Air Nationality DRM Chart. The side with the higher Air Nationality DRM adds the difference to its air combat dice roll, and the side with the lower Air Nationality DRM subtracts the difference from its air combat dice roll. When a side has air units with different Air Nationality DRMs, the lowest Air Nationality DRM is used. If all the air units with the lowest Air Nationality DRM are eliminated, only the Air Nationality DRMs of the remaining air units are used in subsequent rounds of air combat. Air Nationality DRMs may be increased by research.

Air Nationality Chart - 19.31A, 23.441A

DRM

Nationality

2

Germany, Japan, United States, Britain, Finland, Sweden, Australia

1

Italy, Russia, France

0

All minor countries except Finland, Sweden and Australia

Modifiers

+1

Elite Japanese naval air

+1

Defending interceptors

-1

British naval air

-1

Air units subject to a winter effect of 8 or more

-1

Air units in partial supply or subject to air oil effects


B. A favorable +/-1 modifier for each jet factor or three jet squadrons engaged in the air combat. If both sides commit jets, only the net modifier is used (17.56).
C. An adverse +/-1 modifier if one force is attacking an enemy naval force at sea and engages in air combat with defending air units flying combat air patrol. Surprise effects may negate this modifier (23.7413). Air units flying air cover do not benefit from this modifier.
D. In air combat arising from strategic bombing, a +/-1 modifier in favor of the defender for each radar research result achieved by the defender. The attacker's radar research results are ignored and do not give the attacker a favorable modifier.

19.4 AIR COMBAT RESOLUTION:
19.41 AIR COMBAT SIMULTANEOUS: Air combat dice rolls are made simultaneously. The size of the forces engaged is calculated before any air combat losses for that round are incurred.
19.42 AIR COMBAT TABLE RESULTS: The number before the "/" indicates the number of enemy air factors or squadrons which are eliminated. The number after the "/" indicates the number of enemy air factors or squadrons which are forced to abort. Excess abort results are ignored. A dice roll of less than two is treated as a two.
19.5 ARMY AND NAVAL AIR COMBAT:
19.51 AIR COMBAT BETWEEN ARMY AND NAVAL AIR UNITS: When NAS and AAF engage in air combat, each AAF is broken down into three AAS prior to resolving combat, with all the AAS engaging in the air combat, regardless of type (23.131A). The row used on the Air Combat Table for air combat dice rolls is determined by the number of air squadrons involved, and losses are similarly taken in air squadrons. Losses from a force composed of both AAS and NAS are apportioned according to 19.6.
19.52 For the recombination of AAS into AAF, see 23.14.

19.6 AIR LOSSES FROM MIXED FORCES:
19.61 Combat effects to a force of mixed types must be distributed equally among the types involved, with any remnant being taken by the type having the most factors or squadrons involved unless otherwise specified. This rule applies to forces containing:
A. Different nationalities.
B. Different types of air units, such as army air, naval air, jets, interceptors and air transports.
C Air units of the same nationality but different Air Nationality DRMs (Japanese elite and non-elite NAS).
19.62 If an equal number of factors were involved, the remnant is taken from the type with the lower Air Nationality DRM (EXCEPTION: Air combat resulting from strategic bombing - 26.454). If the number of factors present and the Air Nationality DRMs are equal, the owner chooses.
19.63 The number of factors eliminated and aborted are totaled when apportioning losses per rule 19.61, then assigned as equally as possible to the various types of air units involved. Eliminated air factors are apportioned first, then air factors which are forced to abort. For example, a “1/1” air combat result against a force of three American and one British AAF eliminates one American factor and aborts one British factor.
19.64 If uninverted and inverted air units are counteraired in the same hex, the inverted air units are ignored when determining and applying the counterair combat results to the defender (EXCEPTION: If all the uninverted air units are eliminated, any surplus eliminated results are applied to the inverted air units. Abort results have no effect on inverted air units).
19.65 A force fighting as squadrons, either because it contains naval air units or engages in air combat with enemy naval air units, apportions combat effects as set out in 19.61 - 19.64.
A. All AAS of the same nationality are considered to be of the same type. No distinction is made at this stage between search, cover and attack squadrons.
B. Once combat effects have been determined for each type of air unit engaged, including to the AAS of each nationality, rules 19.61 - 19.64 are applied to the AAS of each nationality, with attack, cover and search AAS each being considered a different type of unit for the purpose of taking losses and abort results.
C. Once AAS losses have been determined, AAF are taken as losses as set out in 23.14.

EXAMPLE: A Japanese carrier force counterairs 2 American AAF, 1 Australian AAF, and 1 American NAS. The American and Australian AAF are converted to AAS, so the attacked Allied force consists of 6 American AAS, 3 Australian AAS and 1 American NAS.

Japan achieves a 2/3 air combat result.

The U.S. and Australia lose 1 AAS each. The American NAS, 1 American AAS, and 1 Australian AAS abort. 19.65 then applies to the air combat effects on the American and Australian AAS by nationality. Because there are an equal number of attack, cover and search AAS, the Allied player decides what types of AAS to lose and abort. However, the U.S. could not take both air combat effects from the same type of AAS.