26. STRATEGIC BOMBING
26.1 OVERVIEW
26.2 DEPLOYMENT OF AIR UNITS FOR SW
26.3 BOMBING TARGETS
26.4 STRATEGIC BOMBING
26.5 STRATEGIC BOMBING RESTRICTIONS
26.6 FLYING BOMBS AND ROCKETS
26.7 BOMBING EFFECTS
26.8 REMOVAL OF MARKERS
26.9 FIRESTORMS

26.1 OVERVIEW:
26.11 STRATEGIC BOMBERS: Strategic bombers may attack enemy targets within range of their bases (26.31).
26.12 INTERCEPTORS: Interceptors may operate offensively by escorting bombers to their target or defensively by intercepting enemy bombers or flying bombs.
26.13 AIR FACTORS: Fully supplied, uninverted AAF may operate offensively from operational air bases by attacking targets. One-third (rounded down) of the attacking AAF operate as bombers and the remaining two-thirds act as escorts. AAF may also operate defensively by intercepting enemy bombers or flying bombs. Army air units in air bases which are not operational may intercept enemy bombers or flying bombs only in the hex in which they are based.
26.14 JETS: Jets may operate offensively by escorting bombers to their target, or operate defensively by intercepting enemy bombers or flying bombs. Jets are subject to the same supply and oil restrictions as AAF.
26.15 FLYING BOMBS AND ROCKETS: Flying bomb and rocket attacks may be launched at targets within range of any undamaged operational rocket base. Flying bomb attacks may be opposed by defending interceptors, AAF and jets.

26.2 DEPLOYMENT OF AIR UNITS FOR SW:
26.21 ASSIGNMENT TO FRONTS: The air portions of both the European and Pacific SW boxes consist of three parts which correspond to the three different fronts on each mapboard. Strategic bombers and interceptors may be deployed from one front to another during the redeployment phase, whether or not they were used during the owning player's turn (24.52). Strategic bombers and interceptors assigned to one front may bomb targets or escort bombers to a target on another front if they have the range to do so, as measured from any operational air base on their front.
26.22 PLACEMENT OF NEWLY CONSTRUCTED STRATEGIC BOMBERS AND INTERCEPTORS: Newly constructed strategic bombers and interceptors may be placed in any of the three fronts of the SW box corresponding to the theater in which they are built provided the owning alliance faction controls an operational air base on that front.
26.23 RESTRICTIONS:
A. BRITISH STRATEGIC BOMBERS AND INTERCEPTORS: British strategic bombers and interceptors may not be employed in the Pacific theater.
B. AMERICAN STRATEGIC BOMBERS AND INTERCEPTORS: Before the U.S. is at war in a theater newly constructed American strategic bombers and interceptors must remain in the U.S. (24.53). Newly constructed American strategic bombers and interceptors may only be placed in the Atlantic or Pacific SW boxes if the U.S. is at war in the applicable theater. Western Allied strategic bomber production for European use may begin in 1940; American strategic bomber production for Pacific use may begin in 1944 (42.22B).
26.24 INTERCEPTORS MAY ATTACK BOMBERS FLYING THROUGH THEIR FRONT: Interceptors may defend against enemy bombing if the path of the attacking bombers passes through, or the target being bombed is on, their assigned front.
26.25 AAF AND JETS: AAF and jets may not be placed in an SW box, but may intercept enemy bombers or flying bombs in hexes within range of their base. AAF and jets in bases which are not operational may intercept enemy bombers or flying bombs only in the hex in which they are based.

26.3 BOMBING TARGETS:
26.31 BASES WITHIN RANGE REQUIRED: Strategic bombers and escorting interceptors may be employed against enemy major powers only if the owning major power controls an operational air base on the front in which the SW units are based, within range of one of the following enemy-controlled targets. Similarly, flying bomb and rocket attacks require an undamaged operational rocket base within range of the target. Bombing attacks from and against the U.S. boxes may only be made by strategic bombers belonging to an alliance faction which has achieved three air range research results. Air bases in Nationalist China may be used by the United States to bomb Japan, but they must be fully supplied from a British or American, not Chinese, supply source and not subject to air oil effects. Eligible targets for strategic bombing by country are listed below:
A. GERMANY: An objective hex in Germany.
B. ITALY: Rome, Milan and Genoa.
C. BRITAIN: London, Birmingham, Manchester, the India box and the Australia box.
D. RUSSIA: A Russian IC, Vladivostok, Irkutsk and the Urals box.
E. UNITED STATES: The U.S. boxes, although Germany and Japan may only use strategic bombers against the United States after obtaining three air range research results.
F. CHINA: Chungking, Nanking, Canton, Shanghai and Peking, if controlled by Nationalist China.
G. JAPAN: Tokyo, Osaka and Kagoshima.
H. NAVAL UNITS IN SHIPYARDS: Naval units which are undergoing repair or construction (on the "Launch" row or higher) in a shipyard, as indicated by an anchor symbol on the mapboard. Undamaged naval units and naval units in a "Waiting for Repair" box may be attacked by air units normally, but may not be attacked by strategic bombing.
I. OIL CENTERS: Any enemy-controlled oil center (26.72, 26.74).
J. SYNTHETIC OIL PLANTS: A German synthetic oil plant (26.72, 26.73).
K. ROCKET BASES: Any enemy rocket base.
26.32 SECONDARY TARGETS: If all the eligible key economic areas in Germany, Britain or Japan have been firestormed or subject to atomic attack, cities adjacent to those key economic areas may be bombed. No BRP losses may be inflicted by bombing such secondary targets, although secondary targets may be firestormed or subject to strategic atomic attack, and the political and resistance effects associated with such attacks apply normally.
26.33 ATOMIC ATTACKS USING STRATEGIC BOMBERS AND ROCKETS: Strategic bombers and rockets may be used to make strategic atomic attacks against any enemy targets otherwise eligible as strategic bombing targets, and may be used to make tactical atomic attacks against hexes containing enemy air and naval units (EXCEPTION: The Western Allies may not make strategic atomic attacks against Italian cities). Strategic bombing attacks on hexes which have no economic or oil value are only effective if atomic bombs are used, as there is no economic effect of such strategic bombing attacks.
26.34 CAPTURED KEY ECONOMIC AREAS AND ICs: Captured key economic areas and ICs which originally belonged to another major power may not be attacked by strategic bombers, flying bombs or rockets.

26.4 STRATEGIC BOMBING:
26.41 STRATEGIC BOMBING ATTACKS: The attacker initiates strategic bombing attacks during the combat phase by announcing which of his strategic bombing forces are attacking which enemy targets and the route each force is taking to its target. Each strategic bombing force consists of a bomber component and possibly an escort component, all of which must be of the same nationality.
26.42 BOMBER COMPONENT: The bomber component of a strategic bomber force consists of one or both of the following elements:
A. The strategic bomber factors assigned to attack the target.
B. One-third (rounded down) of the AAF assigned to attack the target.
26.421 STRATEGIC BOMBER RANGE: The permitted range for strategic bombers may be increased by air range research (17.72).
26.422 USE OF AAF FOR BOMBING: Uninverted AAF based in an operational air base may fly an offensive air mission and bomb a target listed in 26.3 if the target is within four hexes (Europe) or three hexes (Pacific). The bombing range of AAF is not affected by air range research, but AAF acting as bombers use the air range research result for strategic bombers (17.72) when determining the SW combat modifier for excess air range (26.461B). NAS may not be used for strategic bombing.
26.43 ESCORT COMPONENT: Escorting air units do not bomb, but instead protect the bomber component of a strategic bomber force up to the limit of the escorts’ range. The escort component of a strategic bomber force consists of one or more of the following elements:
A. Any interceptors assigned to escort the bomber component of the strategic bomber force.
B. Any jets assigned to escort the bomber component of the strategic bomber force.
C. The remaining two-thirds of the AAF assigned to attack the target.
26.431 USE OF INTERCEPTORS FOR ESCORT: The basic range for interceptor escort (four hexes in Europe; three hexes in the Pacific) may be increased by air range research (17.82).
26.44 DEFENDING AGAINST STRATEGIC BOMBING ATTACKS:
26.441 DEFENDER ASSIGNS AIR UNITS TO DEFENSE: Once the attacker has announced the composition and targets of all strategic bomber forces, the defender assigns some, all or none of the available defensive forces to the defense of each target.
26.442 WHERE BOMBER FORCE MAY BE ENGAGED: Each strategic bomber force may be engaged by defending units in one hex along its bombing route, including in the target hex itself. If a strategic bomber force passes through more than one front, it may also be engaged in one hex on each additional front. This is the only circumstance in which a bombing force may be engaged more than once in one turn. All bombers and escorts based in the same hex which are attacking the same target hex must follow the same route.
26.443 WHICH DEFENDING AIR UNITS MAY ENGAGE: The following defending air units may engage strategic bomber forces:
A. INTERCEPTORS: Uninverted interceptors may engage a bomber force that passes within range (four hexes in Europe and three hexes in the Pacific, unless increased by research) of an operational air base on the front to which the interceptors are assigned.
B. AAF AND JETS: Uninverted AAF and jets may engage a bomber force that passes within range (four hexes in Europe and three hexes in the Pacific for AAF; jet range is determined by the applicable research result) of their operational air base.
C. ONE ENGAGEMENT PER FRONT: A bomber force may be engaged by defending air only once on each front.
D. NON-OPERATIONAL BASES: An air base which is not operational permits interception only in its hex.
E. CHINA: American and Russian interceptors may oppose Japanese bombing in China only if the required air base is fully supplied from a Western Allied or Russian supply source, as the case may be.
26.444 DEFENSIVE AIR MISSION: The employment of AAF and jets to defend against strategic bombers is a defensive air mission.
26.445 ITALY:
A. Italian AAF may only defend bombing targets in Italy by engaging a bomber force attacking bombing targets in Italy in a Mediterranean front hex; Italian AAF may not engage a bombing force in a western front hex and may not engage a bomber force attacking bombing targets in Germany in a Mediterranean front hex.
B.German interceptors assigned to the Mediterranean front and German AAF and jets within range may engage a bomber force attacking bombing targets in Italy in a Mediterranean front hex; German interceptors assigned to the western front and German AAF and jets within range may engage a bomber force attacking bombing targets in Italy in a western front hex.
26.45 RESOLVING STRATEGIC BOMBING AIR COMBAT:
26.451 AIR COMBAT RESOLVED FOR EACH STRATEGIC BOMBER FORCE: Once the defender has allocated his defending air units to each strategic bombing target, one round of air combat is resolved for each strategic bombing force. If strategic bomber forces from different major powers bomb the same target, the attacker decides the order in which air combat is resolved. Any defending forces that survive air combat with the first strategic bomber force may engage in air combat with the second bomber force. Air combat between strategic bomber forces and defending air units is resolved using the Air Combat Table (19.2), with the contending air combat strengths being calculated as follows:
A.DEFENDER'S AIR COMBAT STRENGTH: The total number of defending air factors attacking the strategic bomber force.
B. ATTACKER’S AIR COMBAT STRENGTH: A number of air factors equal to the number of defending air factors which are attacking the strategic bomber force. If there are more defending air factors than there are air factors in the strategic bomber force, all the air units in the strategic bomber force engage in air combat. If there are more attacking air factors than defending air factors, the attacker may choose which attacking units will engage in air combat with the defending air units. In determining the attacker's Air Nationality DRM for the air combat, only the Air Nationality DRMs of the air units engaging the defending air units are considered. The attacker may not commit more air factors to air combat than the defender. The attacker’s air combat strength thus may not exceed that of the defender (EXCEPTION: Jets - 26.452).
26.452 JETS: Each jet, whether intercepting or escorting, is counted as one air factor when determining the number of air factors which may engage in air combat, but counts as three air factors when determining the air combat strength of each side.
26.453 AIR COMBAT MODIFIERS: Air combat arising out of the interception of a strategic bomber force is subject to the following modifiers (positive modifiers favor the strategic bomber force; a positive net modifier for air combat for one side results in an equal negative net modifier for the other side - 19.31):
+1for each jet used to escort the strategic bombing force
+/-#relative Air Nationality DRMs
-1for each jet used to intercept the strategic bombing force
-1for each radar research result achieved by the defender

Because interceptors have an additional +1 Air Nationality DRM (17.85), a defending force consisting of only interceptors will have an advantage in air combat.

26.454 AIR COMBAT LOSSES: Air combat losses for both sides are allocated according to 19.6, with the first lost factor coming from the largest group, the next lost factor coming from the next largest group, and so on. Factors which are lost are taken first, then factors which are forced to abort. Where two categories in a force are equal in size, the loss is taken from interceptors, then escorting or intercepting AAF, then jets, then bombing AAF, then strategic bombers, in that order. Escorting AAF, AAF acting as bombers, strategic bombers, escorting interceptors and escorting jets are treated as separate categories when assigning losses to the attacker's force; intercepting AAF, interceptors and jets are treated as separate categories when assigning losses to the defender's force. Air combat losses are taken from the strategic bomber force as a whole, regardless of which air factors actually engaged in air combat.

Since only one round of air combat is fought between a strategic bomber force and the defender's air units, the apportioning of losses to the defender is not all that important. It can be crucial for the attacker, however. Strategic bombers should, if possible, always be accompanied by both AAF and interceptors, as this means that fewer of the air factors affected by the defender's air combat result will be taken from the bomber, as opposed to escort, component of the attacking force. Strategic bombers bombing with no escorts at all will absorb all the air combat losses inflicted by the defender's air units.

EXAMPLES: 30 German AAF bomb Britain. 10 German AAF act as bombers and 20 German AAF act as escorts. They are opposed by 15 British AAF and one British interceptor. Both sides roll on the 16 row of the Air Combat Table. Each side gets a "6/6" result. Three escorting German AAF and three bombing German AAF are eliminated; then three escorting German AAF and three bombing German AAF abort. Four bombing German AAF make it to their target.
An American strategic bomber force consisting of the following air units

Escorting
AAF
Bombing
AAF
Interceptors Strategic
Bombers
Jets
8 4 5 5 1
is engaged by seven German AAF, four German interceptors and two German jets.
Germany engages with 13 air factors, with an air combat level of 7 (AAF) + 4 (interceptors) + 6 (each jet counts as 3 AAF) = 17.
The American strategic bomber force engages with 13 air factors, with an air combat level of 12 + 3 (each jet counts as 3 AAF) = 15.
The German air combat result is "6/7". These are allocated as follows:

Escorting
AAF
Bombing
AAF
Interceptors Strategic
Bombers
Jets
8 4 5 5 1
Losses
-2 -1 -1 -1 -1
Aborts
-1 -2 -2 -2
Bombers which reach target
Irrelevant 1 Irrelevant 2 Irrelevant
26.46 RESOLVING BOMBING ATTACKS AGAINST THE TARGET:
26.461 SW COMBAT DICE ROLLS: After air combat is resolved, each side makes one SW combat dice roll for each target. The attacker's level on the Strategic Warfare Combat Table (24.62) is determined by the number of strategic bombers plus the number of AAF acting as bombers which reached the target. Strategic bombers and AAF which were eliminated or forced to abort in air combat are considered to not have reached their target.
A. TARGET DEFENSES: The defender's level on the Strategic Warfare Combat Table is determined by the strength of the target's defenses:
1each flak factor, airbase counter, objective or anchor symbol
2each city or port
1each fortification level (+1 for each fortification; +2 for a fortress; beach defenses have no effect on air defense levels)
B. SW COMBAT MODIFIERS: The strategic bomber and target SW combat dice rolls are subject to the following modifiers. The modifier for excess air range is limited by the number of strategic bomber research results achieved by the bombing alliance faction (one strategic bomber result limits the excess air range modifier to +1; two strategic bomber results limit the excess air range modifier to +2; and so on). The initial Western Allied strategic bombing result counts towards this limit. Positive modifiers favor the bombers:
+1for each attacker strategic bomber research result beyond that needed to construct strategic bombers
+1for every eight (Europe) or four (Pacific) hexes of excess bombing range
-1for each air defense research result achieved by the defender

The modifiers applying to air combat between strategic bomber forces and defending air units (26.453); SW combat between strategic bomber forces and their targets (26.461B); and the defensive strength of strategic bomber targets (26.461A) are summarized below:


SW Combat Modifiers Table

Strategic bombing

Strategic bomber forces v. defending air units (air combat):

+/-#

relative Air Nationality DRMs

+/-1

for each jet engaged

-#

defender's radar research level

Strategic bomber v. bombing targets:

+1

for each attacker strategic bomber research result beyond that needed to construct strategic bombers

+1

for every eight (Europe) or four (Pacific) hexes of excess bombing range (as limited by the number of strategic bomber research results - 26.461B)

-#

defender's air defense research level

Bombing targets use the SW Combat Table row equal to the defensive strength of the target, which is the total of the following:

1

each flak factor, airbase counter, objective or anchor symbol

2

each city or port

1

each fortification level (+1 for each fortification; +2 for a fortress; beach defenses have no effect on air defense levels)

“+” modifiers favor the attacker and “-” modifiers favor the defender. The net modifier for both SW combat dice rolls is always the same, except one is positive and one is negative.


26.462 MAPBOARD BOXES: When a mapboard box is bombed, it is assumed to have a defensive strength of three, equivalent to an objective city; the defense strength of a mapboard box may not be increased. Uninverted fully or partially supplied AAF and jets in the mapboard box may intercept the bombing factors, even if subject to air oil effects. In addition, interceptors assigned to the western front may defend the U.S. against German bombing; interceptors assigned to the Pacific front may defend the U.S. or Australia against Japanese bombing; interceptors assigned to the Southeast Asian front may defend India against Japanese bombing; interceptors assigned to the eastern front may defend the Urals against German bombing; interceptors assigned to the Asian front may defend the Urals against Japanese bombing. Interceptors are assigned to defense once Axis bombing attacks are announced. Mapboard boxes are considered a different front for the purposes of 26.442; each interceptor may be used either on the mapboard or in a mapboard box.
26.463 ATTACKER'S SW COMBAT RESULT: For the attacker's SW combat result, the defender loses three BRPs for each number before the "/" and one BRP for each number after the "/". These BRP losses are taken from the bombing target.
26.464 DEFENDER’S SW COMBAT RESULT: For the defender’s SW combat result, the number before the “/” is the number of attacking bomber factors which are eliminated, and the number after the “/” is the number of attacking bomber factors which abort. These combat effects are distributed between bombing AAF and strategic bombers, as per 26.454.
26.47 ADDITIONAL LOSSES: The defender may incur additional losses if the net SW combat modifier favors the attacker (24.65A), provided all bombing air units were not eliminated or aborted in air combat, or if one or more bombers reach the target without being offset by a net SW combat modifier favoring the defender (24.65B).

26.5 STRATEGIC BOMBING RESTRICTIONS:
26.51 STRATEGIC BOMBING BY DIFFERENT MAJOR POWERS: The air units of all major powers bomb separately, although they may choose the same targets. The attacker announces the order of the raids, then the defender allocates his air defenses to each target. All defending air units which are not eliminated in air combat against the first strategic bombing attack against a target may intercept a second raid against that same target, and so on, including defending against subsequent flying bomb attacks. Effects of different bombing raids on the same target are combined to determine bombing effects.
26.52 JAPAN: No more than ten Japanese AAF may engage in conventional bombing in any one turn.
26.53 CHINA: China does not receive a favorable SW combat modifier for Western Allied air defense research.
26.54 WESTERN ALLIED-RUSSIAN COOPERATION: Western Allied air units may not defend Russian targets, and vice versa.

26.6 FLYING BOMBS AND ROCKETS:
26.61 ROCKET BASES: Rocket bases are placed and recycled in the same manner as airbases (18.14), except for the following:
A. When allowed by a research result for rockets, a major power may place one additional rocket base on the board, as well as recycle an existing undamaged rocket base.
B. A recycled Allied rocket base may be placed in a different theater.
26.62 ELIMINATING AND DAMAGING ROCKET BASES:
A. A rocket base is eliminated if its hex comes under enemy control.
B. If a rocket base incurs 10 or more BRPs of bombing damage in a single turn, it is eliminated at no BRP cost to the owning major power. If a rocket base incurs less than 10 BRPs of bombing damage in a single turn, the owning major power may either pay the BRPs and keep the rocket base operational, or pay no BRPs and invert the rocket base as damaged and inoperable for his next player turn.
C. Eliminated rocket bases may be placed back on the board at no BRP cost at the rate of one rocket base per turn, in the same manner as undamaged rocket bases are recycled (26.61A).
26.63 EMPLOYMENT OF ROCKET BASES:
A. One salvo of flying bombs or rockets may be fired from each rocket base at no BRP cost.
B. A “9” research result for rockets allows two rocket bases to be placed; a “10” result, four rocket bases; an “11” or “12+”" result, six rocket bases. For each result, half the rocket bases may be used to launch flying bombs and the other half may be used to launch rockets. If there are an odd number of rocket bases, the extra rocket base may be used to launch either flying bombs or rockets.
C. The location of rocket bases determines the range to the target.
26.64 TIMING OF FLYING BOMB AND ROCKET ATTACKS: Flying bomb and rocket attacks are announced at the same time as strategic bombing attacks and are resolved immediately following the resolution of strategic bombing attacks.
26.65 EFFECTS OF FLYING BOMB AND ROCKET ATTACKS:
26.651 BRP EFFECT:
A. FLYING BOMBS: Each flying bomb salvo eliminates 10 BRPs, reduced as set out in 26.661.
B. ROCKETS: Each rocket salvo eliminates five BRPs. There is no defense against rockets. Rule 26.66 therefore does not apply to rocket attacks.
26.652 MAXIMUM EFFECT: The effect of flying bomb and rocket attacks is limited to the BRP value of the target.
26.653 EFFECT ON CONSTRUCTION LIMITS: For flying bomb and rocket attacks on a key economic area, mapboard box or IC:
A. FLYING BOMBS: The defender's construction limit is reduced by one-third of the total BRP losses incurred from flying bombs.
B. ROCKETS: The defender's construction limit is reduced by one BRP for each BRP lost to rocket attacks.
C. GERMAN CONSTRUCTION LIMIT INCREASES: The German construction limit is increased by one BRP beyond its normal level for each BRP lost by Britain or Russia to German flying bombs and rockets. This effect is determined each turn; losses inflicted in previous turns have no additional effect (27.341).
26.66 DEFENDING AGAINST FLYING BOMBS:
26.661 The BRP losses from flying bombs are reduced as follows:
A. For each salvo:
-1for each radar research result achieved by the defender
+/-#relative Air Nationality DRMs
-1for each air defense research result achieved by the defender
B. For each target:
-#the strength of the target's air defenses (26.461A)
-1for each interceptor or AAF assigned to defend the target
-4for each jet assigned to defend the target
EXAMPLE: Two German flying bomb salvos are fired at London, which contains an airbase and two flak factors. Four British AAF are allocated to the defense of London.
Each salvo potentially eliminates 10 British BRPs (26.651A). The Western Allies have one radar research result and one air defense research result, and the Axis and Western Allied Air Nationality DRMs are the same. Each salvo therefore eliminates 8 British BRPs (26.661A), for a total of 16 BRPs. This effect is reduced by 6 BRPs for the air defense level of London and is reduced by a further 4 BRPs because of the four AAF assigned to the defense of London.
The British therefore lose 6 BRPs.

26.662 Interceptors, AAF and jets assigned to defend a target against flying bombs may not have been used against enemy strategic bombers in that combat phase unless the bombers attacked the same target as the flying bombs.
26.663 Interceptors which defend against flying bombs may not be used to escort bombers in their next player turn.
26.664 AAF and jets which defend against flying bombs are inverted for their following player turn.
26.67 ATOMIC ATTACKS: An atomic attack may be made by rocket at a range of three European (two Pacific) hexes if the attacker has achieved an “12+” research result for rockets (43.222). Atomic attacks made by rocket may not be intercepted.

26.7 BOMBING EFFECTS:
26.71 BRP LOSSES: The effects of strategic bombers, flying bombs and rockets are treated as “bombing effects” and are combined to determine BRPs losses and other bombing effects. BRP losses from the bom­bing of economic targets are deducted from the targeted major power’s BRP total.
A. LIMIT ON BRP LOSSES: The number of BRPs which may be lost to bombing against one hex in one turn is limited to the economic value of that hex. This does not prevent the creation of a firestorm (26.91) in hexes worth less than 25 BRPs, provided all other criteria are met; excess BRP losses are disregarded. The economic value of mapboard boxes are considered to be: Australia box: 10 BRPs; India box: 10 BRPs; Urals box: the Russian BRP base, minus 20 BRPs for Vladivostok and Irkutsk; U.S. boxes: unlimited.
B. EFFECT ON CONSTRUCTION LIMITS: For every three BRPs lost to bombing of a key economic area or IC, the construction limit of the defending major power is reduced by one in its next player turn (27.331). Japanese bombing of the Australia and India boxes affects both the Australian or Indian construction limits, as the case may be, and the overall British construction limit (71.321, 72.321). Axis and Japanese bombing of the Urals and U.S. boxes affects the Russian and U.S. construction limits, respectively.
26.72 EFFECTS ON INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES: In addition to any BRP losses inflicted by strategic bombing, damage may be inflicted on industrial facilities in the target hex, as follows:
A. For every 10 BRPs of strategic bombing losses to the target hex, the attacker may assign a damage marker to an oil center or synthetic oil plant in the target hex.
B. If there is more than one industrial facility in the target hex, the attacker assigns the damage as he chooses.
C. Strategic bombing permits the assignment of damage markers on industrial facilities even if the target hex had no economic value and the strategic bombing therefore did not cause the defender to actually lose any BRPs.
D. Strategic bombing losses of less than 10 BRPs also permit the assignment of a damage marker on an industrial facility in the target hex unless the defender immediately deducts that many BRPs from the defender's BRP level. This expenditure represents emergency repairs which offset the bombing damage. Similarly, the assignment of additional damage markers may be prevented by the immediate expenditure of up to 9 BRPs to offset BRP losses in excess of 10 or 20 BRPs. These expenditures have no effect on the defender's construction limit and are considered to be deficit spending if the defender does not have enough BRPs to cover the expenditure.
E. The BRP losses from the strategic bombing of target hexes with economic value is unaffected by the assignment of damage markers or the expenditure of BRPs by the defender to prevent the assignment of damage markers.
F. Industrial facilities in the U.S. and Urals boxes may not be damaged or destroyed (26.73, 33.31).
26.73 DESTRUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES: A damaged synthetic oil plant is destroyed if a second damage marker is assigned to it. This may occur in one turn, as a result of heavy strategic bombing losses, or over several turns, if damage incurred in a previous turn is not repaired.
26.74 OIL CENTERS: The number of damage markers which may be assigned to an oil center may not exceed the production level of the oil center (33.22).
26.75 RUSSIAN ICs: If a Russian IC is bombed, attacked by flying bombs or rockets, or subject to a strategic atomic attack, the maximum BRP loss that may be incurred is the value of the IC (26.71A). Russia may either accept the BRP losses inflicted on the IC or eliminate the IC and incur the normal BRP losses associated with its loss (37.5). Russia may incur a BRP deficit rather than eliminate an IC which has been bombed.
26.76 NAVAL UNITS IN SHIPYARDS: Strategic bombing results against naval units undergoing repair or construction in shipyards are resolved by a dice roll on the SW Combat Table (24.62). If the net SW combat modifier favors the attacker (24.65A) or if one or more bombers reach the target without being offset by a net SW combat modifier favoring the defender (24.65B), a "1/0" result is added to the bombers' SW combat result in place of every 3 BRPs of additional losses. If there is more than one such ship in the attacked shipyard, the strategic bomber SW combat result is applied as the bombing player wishes, in order to maximize its effect.
26.761 EFFECTS: Strategic bombing results are applied to ships undergoing repair or construction in a shipyard as follows:
A. For each "1/0" result, the attacked ship is moved two columns to the right.
B. For each "0/1" result, the attacked ship is moved one column to the right.
C. Each time an attacked Axis ship is moved out of the column for the current season, the ship is also moved to the next highest row. Each time an attacked Allied ship is moved into the column for the current season, the ship is also moved to the next highest row.
D. A ship that is moved to a row greater than its size in factors is eliminated.
E. The "Spring" and "Winter" columns are considered to be adjacent when resolving strategic bombing attacks against ships undergoing repair or construction in a shipyard.
EXAMPLE: In Spring 1942, the Western Allies attack the Gneisenau, a 3-factor battlecruiser being repaired in the Kiel shipyard, with three British strategic bomber factors. The Gneisenau is in the launch row of the "Fall" column.
The Kiel hex has an SW defensive strength of 5 (two cities and an anchor symbol). There are no defending air units or SW combat modifiers. The Axis player rolls a "4" (a "1/1" result) and the Western Allied player rolls a "9" (also a "1/1" result). One strategic bomber makes it to the target, increasing the attack result by "1/0" (for a total of "2/1").
The Western Allied player applies the entire "2/1" result to the Gneisenau, which causes it to be moved five columns to the right. After being moved two columns to the right (from "Fall" to "Winter" to "Spring"), the Gneisenau reaches the current season (spring) and is also moved up to the "2" row. The Gneisenau is then moved three additional columns to the right and ends up in the "Winter" column on the "2" row, which delays its launch by five additional turns.


26.8 REMOVAL OF MARKERS:
26.81 DAMAGE MARKERS: One damage marker assigned to an industrial facility may be removed each turn, as follows:
A. TIMING: At the end of its player turn, each alliance faction may remove one damage marker from any hex it controlled throughout its player turn. A damage marker may not be removed in the player turn in which the damage was incurred.
B. NO BRP COST: There is no BRP cost to remove a damage marker.
26.82 FIRESTORM MARKERS: Firestorm markers remain in place for the year in which the firestorms occur and the ensuing year, and are then removed at the rate of one per turn, starting in the Spring turn of the second year after the year in which they occurred (26.95).
26.83 ATOMIC ATTACK MARKERS PERMANENT: Atomic attack markers may not be removed.

26.9 FIRESTORMS:
26.91 CREATION: A firestorm occurs in any eligible hex (26.92A) which sustains at least 25 BRPs of strategic bombing damage in one turn, although the actual number of BRPs lost is limited to the economic value of the hex (26.71A).
26.92 RESTRICTIONS:
A. Firestorms may only be created in German, Japanese and British cities and in Russian cities which contain ICs, Vladivostok and Irkutsk.
B. A hex may not be firestormed if it contains a firestorm or atomic attack marker.
26.93 EFFECTS: If a firestorm occurs, a firestorm marker is placed on the hex, and the following political and diplomatic effects are trig­gered:
A. The surrender or resistance level of the target major power is reduced by one for each firestorm marker.
B. The attacker receives one additional DP in the next YSS and in any DP calculation during the year in which the firestorm occurs and the ensuing year.
26.94 NO EFFECT ON SUPPLY OR OIL RESERVES: Firestorms have no effect on supply or oil reserves.
26.95 REMOVAL: Firestorm markers are removed at rate of one per turn, starting in the Spring turn of the second year after the year in which they occurred.