32. FORTIFICATIONS
32.1 CONSTRUCTION OF FORTIFICATIONS
32.2 EFFECTS OF FORTIFICATIONS
32.3 ELIMINATION OF FORTIFICATIONS
32.4 STARTING FORTIFICATIONS
32.5 BEACH DEFENSES
32.6 FORTIFICATION OF ISLAND GROUPS

32.1 CONSTRUCTION OF FORTIFICATIONS:
32.11 NATIONALITY: Fortifications may be constructed by Germany, Japan, Russia, Britain and the U.S. during the unit construction phase. Italy, France, China and minor countries may not construct fortifications.
32.12 COST: A major power must make the following expenditures to construct a fortification:
A. Five BRPs.
B. One RP (EXCEPTION: Japan does not pay an RP cost for fortification construction).
32.13 ELIGIBLE HEXES: Fortifications may be built only in the following hexes:
A. TYPES OF HEXES:
B. SUPPLY: Hexes which are fully supplied.
C. CONTROL: Hexes which were controlled by the constructing alliance faction at the start of its player turn.
32.14 RESTRICTIONS: Fortification construction is subject to the following restrictions:
A. Fortifications may not be built in hexes which already contain a fortification counter or a fortress. West Wall hexes may be fortified (32.15).
B. Fortifications may not be built in an enemy ZoC.
C. Fortifications may not be built in areas currently subject to a "5" or worse winter result. Winter preparation may offset this effect.
D. Each alliance faction may construct only one fortification per turn.
E. European Axis fortifications must be constructed by Germany. Germany may not construct fortifications in Italy, Sicily or Sardinia until Italy has surrendered.
F. The Western Allies may only construct fortifications in eligible hexes which are controlled by Britain or the United States.

This rule prevents the construction of forts in French hexes unless France has fallen (29.22B) or Germany has attacked Russia before France has fallen (29.25A).

G. Western Allied fortifications must be constructed by Britain (EXCEPTION: The U.S. may construct fortifications in a theater in which it is at war).
H. In the Pacific, the Western Allies may not construct fortifications until the turn following a Japanese declaration of war against Britain or both Britain and the U.S., or until the USJT level has reached 40 or more.
32.15 FORTIFICATION OF WEST WALL HEXES: If a fortification is constructed in a West Wall hex, the directional fortification is upgraded to a fortress and the remaining hexsides are fortified.

32.2 EFFECTS OF FORTIFICATIONS:
32.21 COMBAT:
A. ATTACKS LIMITED TO 1:1 OR GREATER: Attacks against hexes containing fortresses, fortifications, beach defenses or in a fortified island group may only be made if at ground combat odds of 1:1 odds or more. If an adverse ground combat result causes the odds to drop below 1:1, the attack is aborted and no further ground combat is allowed. This restriction applies even if isolation has negated the favorable DM for the fortification or fortress (32.24), but does not apply when hexes containing directional fortifications or beach defenses are attacked from the rear.
B. FAVORABLE DEFENSE MULTIPLIERS:
C. MANDATORY “Ex” RESULTS: When resolving ground combat against any hex containing a fortification, fortress, beach defense or a fortified one-hex island, other than beach defenses attacked from land, directional fortifications attacked from behind and tactical atomic attacks (43.424A), the attacker always incurs an “Ex-1”, “Ex-2” or “Ex-3” result, at the defender’s option, as detailed in 15.55 and 15.551. Which result applies and its effect depends on the attacker’s CTL and the DM of the attacked hex.
32.22 ATTRITION:
32.221 Ground units may not attrition across a fortified enemy hexside, even if the defensive value of the fortification has been negated by isolation (EXCEPTION: Units which engage in attrition combat against Maginot and West Wall hexes across unfortified hexsides). Ground units may attrition across their own fortified hexsides.
32.23 ZoCs:
32.231 ZoCs extend out of, but not into, hexes across fortified hexsides.
32.24 SUPPLY:
32.241 The positive DM from a fortification or fortress is reduced by one each turn in which the hex containing the fortification or fortress fails to receive full supply until the defensive value of the fortification or fortress is negated. For hexes containing Russian-controlled ICs, this effect is delayed by one turn for every five BRPs in the IC (37.72).
32.242 Isolated ground units in a fortified hex which are not eliminated (30.542A) and ground units which enter a besieged fortification or fortress by sea transport or seaborne invasion have their DM reduced by one for each turn the hex is isolated beyond that needed to eliminate the defensive value of their fortification or fortress (32.241).
32.243 Ground units which enter a besieged fortification or fortress by regular or exploitation movement or by air do not incur an adverse DM from isolation during the ensuing opposing player turn, apart from the effect of isolation on the defensive value of their fortification or fortress (32.241)
32.244 Partially supplied ground units in a besieged fortification or fortress do not incur an adverse DM from isolation, apart from the effect of isolation on the defensive value of their fortification or fortress (32.241).
32.245 Supply from an unlimited supply source in a fortified hex itself is sufficient to counter the effects of a siege.
32.246 If full supply to the fortified hex is re-established, the defensive value of the fortification or fortress is immediately restored.
32.247 Isolated fortifications and fortresses, while weakened against enemy attacks, may not be captured by attrition and are not penetrated by enemy ZoCs during a siege.
32.248 Submarines may operate out of an isolated port containing a fortification or fortress, but the Naval Nationality DRM of the submarines is reduced by one beyond the normal -1 for the naval oil effect (33.61B) for each additional turn the port has failed to receive full supply. There is no limit to this modifier.
EXAMPLE: The Axis cut sea supply to Malta in Spring 1942. In Summer 1942, a British submarine in Malta attacks Axis sea supply to North Africa. The Naval Nationality DRM of the submarine is reduced by one. If the siege of Malta continued, the submarine's Naval Nationality DRM would be reduced by two in Fall 1942.
32.25 AIR DEFENSE:
32.251 FORTIFICATIONS: Fortifications, including directional fortifications, increase the air defense level of their hex by one.
32.252 FORTRESSES: Fortresses increase the air defense level of their hex by two.

32.3 ELIMINATION OF FORTIFICATIONS:
32.31 ELIMINATED BY ENEMY OCCUPATION: Fortifications and fortresses are permanently eliminated if their hex comes under enemy control.

32.4 STARTING FORTIFICATIONS:

32.41 The following hexes are fortified at the start of the game (Fall 1939):
32.42 OMNIDIRECTIONAL FORTRESSES:
A. Gibraltar
B. Malta
32.43 DIRECTIONAL FORTRESSES:
A. The Maginot Line (the hexsides of P24, P25 and Q24 facing Germany and Luxembourg).
B. Sevastopol (the hexsides of V38 facing U38 and U39).
C. Singapore (against seaborne invasion only).
32.44 DIRECTIONAL FORTIFICATIONS:
A. The West Wall (the hexsides of M27, N26, O26, P26 and Q25 facing Belgium, Luxembourg and France).

32.5 BEACH DEFENSES:
32.51 NATIONALITY AND COST: Subject to the qualifications set out below, beach defenses may be constructed by the same major powers, at the same BRP and RP cost, subject to the same restrictions, as fortifications (32.11 - 32.14).
32.52 ELIGIBLE HEXES: Beach defences may be constructed only on fully supplied beach hexes which were controlled by the constructing major power at the start of its player turn. Beach defences may not be constructed on one-hex islands.
32.53 TWO BEACH DEFENSE COUNTERS PER TURN: Two beach defense counters are placed on the board instead of a single fortification counter, at the same BRP and RP cost as a single fortification. An alliance faction may not build a fortification and beach defenses in the same turn.
32.54 ONE BEACH DEFENSE COUNTER PER HEX: No more than one beach defense counter may be placed in a hex.
32.55 EFFECTS OF BEACH DEFENSES: Ground units in a hex containing a beach defense counter receive a +1 DM when defending against seaborne invasion. This +1 DM is negated if the ground units are also attacked by enemy ground units or partisans from an adjacent land hex, but is not negated solely by an airdrop. Beach defenses have no effect on attrition, ZoCs, supply or air defense.
32.56 FORTIFICATION OF HEXES CONTAINING BEACH DEFENSES: A beach defense counter and a fortification may be constructed in the same hex, provided this is done in different turns (32.53). If a hex contains both a fortification and a beach defense counter, ground units defending against seaborne invasion receive a +2 DM and ground units defending against other ground attacks receive a +1 DM. The land hexsides of such a hex are fortified for attrition, ZoC and supply purposes.

32.57 ELIMINATED BY ENEMY OCCUPATION: Beach defenses are permanently eliminated if their hex comes under enemy control.

32.6 FORTIFICATION OF ISLAND GROUPS:
32.61 COST: Subject to the qualifications set out below, island groups may be fortified by Japan and the Western Allies, at the same BRP and RP cost, as for building a fortification. The BRP cost of the Western Allies fortifying an island group is paid by the U.S. (EXCEPTION: If Japan only attacks Britain, Britain pays the BRP cost for fortifying island groups until the U.S. enters the war, except for island groups occupied by the U.S.).
32.62 ELIGIBLE ISLAND GROUPS: Both partially and fully controlled island groups may be fortified.
32.63 ONE ISLAND GROUP FORTIFICATION PER TURN: No more than one island group may be fortified each turn. Fortifications and beach defenses may not be built in the same player turn as an island group is fortified.
32.64 INDICATING ISLAND GROUP FORTIFICATION: The fortification of an island group is indicated by placing a beach defense counter near the island group.
32.65 EFFECTS: Fortifying an island group gives all one-hex islands in that group a +1 DM against seaborne invasions. This effect applies only to islands which were controlled and fully supplied by the moving alliance faction at the start of the player turn in which the island group was fortified. Enemy-controlled islands which are subsequently captured do not receive the benefit of the fortification.
32.66 ADDITIONAL FORTIFICATIONS: A fortification may be constructed in an island in a fortified island group, provided this is done in different turns. If a hex in a fortified island group contains a fortification, ground units defending against seaborne invasion receive a +2 DM
32.67 BISMARCKS: If the Bismarck Archipelago (New Britain, New Ireland, Manus) is fortified, the beaches in New Britain and New Ireland are considered to contain beach defenses; Manus receives a +1 DM against seaborne invasions in the same manner as other one-hex islands. If a fortification is built in New Britain or New Ireland, the fortified hex receives an additional +1 DM when defending against other ground attacks and the hex cannot be attritioned.
32.68 ELIMINATED BY ENEMY OCCUPATION: The effect of island group fortification is permanently eliminated in islands that come under enemy control.