33. OIL
33.1 OVERVIEW
33.2 OIL SOURCES
33.3 OIL PRODUCTION
33.4 OIL COUNTERS AND RESERVES
33.5 OIL CONSUMPTION
33.6 OIL EFFECTS
33.7 UNINVERSION AND EXPLOITATION

33.1 OVERVIEW:
33.11 Each alliance faction controls oil sources (33.2) which produce oil counters (33.4). Oil counters represent the oil resources available for use in the game. Oil production from certain oil sources may be affected if the oil source is damaged or destroyed (33.3).
33.12 Oil counters are used to offset oil effects and maximize the use of air, naval and armor units. Oil counters may be:
A. Moved to unlimited supply sources by land or sea to augment the oil reserve associated with that unlimited supply source;
B. Shipped by sea to a supply zone and then used in that supply zone; or
C. Used in the supply zone in which the oil counters are produced.
33.13 Units and hexes supplied from unlimited supply sources suffer any oil effects associated with the unlimited supply source itself, unless oil is produced in or shipped to and consumed in their supply zone. Air and naval units have the supply and oil status of the hex in which they are based (30.61).
33.14 Oil counters which are not used in the turn they are produced may be retained in an oil reserve for use in a future turn (33.422).

33.2 OIL SOURCES:
33.21 MAPBOARD BOXES: The following mapboard boxes produce the specified number of oil counters per turn:
A. U.S. BOXES: Unlimited.
B. URALS BOX: One. The oil production of the Urals box is increased by one for each IC diverted to oil production (37.65).
33.22 OIL CENTERS: The following oil centers produce the specified number of oil counters each turn unless their capacity is reduced by damage:
A. PLOESTI: Three.
B. MOSUL: Three.
C. ABADAN: Three.
D. AHWAZ: Three.
E. BAKU: Two
F. GROZNY: One
G. MAIKOP: One.
H. PALEMBANG: Three.
I. BRUNEI: Three.
33.23 SYNTHETIC OIL PLANTS:
33.231 OIL PRODUCTION CAPACITY: Each undamaged synthetic oil plant produces one oil counter each turn and is also an unlimited supply source (30.222B).
33.232 GERMANY ONLY: Only Germany may build synthetic oil plants, although Russia may divert ICs to oil production (37.65).
33.233 STARTING LEVEL: Germany begins the game with two synthetic oil plants, each of which must be placed in a different German objective.
33.234 PRODUCTION: Germany may produce additional synthetic oil plants at a cost of five RPs per synthetic oil plant (reduced by one for each military breakthrough). Synthetic oil plants are produced at the start of the Axis player turn and may be used as an oil source in the turn in which they are produced. Newly produced synthetic oil plants must be placed in an objective in Germany which does not already contain a synthetic oil plant. Once each German-controlled objective in Germany contains a synthetic oil plant, a second synthetic oil plant may be placed in an objective which already contains an oil plant. No more than six synthetic oil plants may be in play at any one time.
33.24 THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET: The international market produces oil counters to which Japan has access, although this access may be impeded by an oil embargo (33.4521).
33.25 MINOR COUNTRY CAPITALS: A minor country capital, which provides full supply to all units of the minor country (30.24), also provides oil to that minor country's units (only). This oil supply is distinct from the oil used by alliance factions and is not represented by oil counters. After association or activation, minor country oil requirements may also be met using their major power's oil counters.

33.3 OIL PRODUCTION:
33.31 DAMAGE AND DESTRUCTION OF OIL SOURCES:
A. MAPBOARD BOXES: The oil production capacity of mapboard boxes may not be damaged or destroyed.
B. OIL CENTERS: Oil centers are damaged if they come under enemy control (33.321) and may be damaged by enemy bombing (33.33). Damage to oil centers is indicated by placing a damage marker on the hex containing the oil center. Each damage marker on an oil center reduces its oil production capacity by one. An oil center may have a maximum of one damage marker for each level of oil production capacity. Synthetic oil plants may be damaged or destroyed (33.322, 33.33).
33.32 ENEMY CONTROL:
33.321 OIL CENTERS: An oil center incurs one level of damage whenever the hex in which it is located comes under enemy control, subject to the exceptions set out in 33.3211. Recapture of an oil center also triggers one level of damage, whether or not the previous damage has been repaired. A player may not inflict damage on an oil center he controls, although he may decline to repair any damage previously incurred by that oil center. If an oil center is lost, then recaptured, then lost again, the oil center suffers further damage, whether or not the previous damage was repaired.
33.3211 EXCEPTIONS: Oil centers are captured without damage in the following situations:
A. NEUTRAL RUMANIA: If Rumania is not associated or allied with a major power, the capture of Ploesti does not damage the oil center. Gaining control of Rumania by diplomacy does not damage the Ploesti oil center.
B. SURPRISE EFFECTS (RUSSIA): If the RGT level is less than 40 when Germany declares war on Russia, Russian-controlled oil centers captured by the Axis in the first turn of the German attack are not damaged.
C. SURPRISE EFFECTS (PACIFIC): If the effective USJT level is less than 40 when Japan declares war on the U.S. or Britain, Palembang and Brunei are not damaged if captured by Japan during the first two turns of the Japanese attack.
D. SURRENDER: An oil center which comes under Axis control as part of a British or Russian surrender is not damaged.
E. PARTISANS: Oil centers do not suffer damage as a result of their occupation by partisans or their recapture from partisans, although they do not produce oil while under partisan control.
F. OPENING OF THE PERSIAN ROUTE: The opening of the Persian route does not damage the Persian oil centers.
33.322 SYNTHETIC OIL PLANTS: Synthetic oil plants are destroyed if their hex comes under enemy control.
33.33 BOMBING: Strategic bombing may damage or destroy synthetic oil plants and damage oil centers as set out in 26.72-26.74.
33.34 SCORCHING OF OIL SOURCES PROHIBITED: A player may not damage or destroy oil centers under his control.
33.35 REPAIRING OIL SOURCES: At the end of its player turn, each alliance faction may remove one damage marker at no BRP cost from an industrial facility or oil center it controlled throughout its player turn (26.81).

33.4 OIL COUNTERS AND RESERVES:
33.41 OIL COUNTERS:
A. At the start of each player turn, during the oil adjustment phase, newly-produced oil counters are placed in each oil source under friendly or neutral control from which moving alliance factions may draw oil.
B. Oil counters may be moved by land from an oil source to an oil reserve as permitted by 33.43A.
C. Oil counters may be moved by sea from an oil source to an oil reserve as permitted by 33.43B.
D. Oil counters which remain in an oil center and are not used in the course of the moving player's turn are eliminated at the end of that player's turn.
33.411 USING OIL COUNTERS: Each oil counter may be used in one of the following ways:
A. TO OFFSET OIL EFFECTS: Oil counters may be used to offset oil effects (33.6) during the oil adjustment phase, initial supply determination, or redeployment phase (air, naval and army oil effects); or during the unit construction phase (construction and economic oil effects - 33.52A, D).
B. UNINVERTING AIR AND NAVAL UNITS: Additional oil counters may be used at any time during a player turn to uninvert air and naval units (33.52B), subject to the restrictions set out in 33.74.
C. ARMORED EXPLOITATION: Additional oil counters may be used at the start of the exploitation phase to enable armor units to exploit (33.52C, 33.72).
33.412 Oil counters used to offset oil effects, uninvert additional air or naval units or enable additional armor units to exploit are immediately consumed and removed from play.
33.42 OIL RESERVES: Unused oil counters in an oil reserve remain in that oil reserve and may be used in a future turn. Each oil reserve is associated with one or more unlimited supply sources. Oil counters in an oil reserve are placed on the relevant major power force pool charts, mapboard boxes or city. As the game progresses, oil reserves may increase or decrease, depending on whether production exceeds consumption or vice versa. Oil counters in oil reserves are not subject to damage or destruction except as set out in 33.424.
33.421 OIL RESERVES AND SUPPLY SOURCES: Each oil reserve is associated with the following unlimited supply sources:
A. EUROPEAN AXIS: Berlin, Rome and each German objective containing an undamaged synthetic oil plant.
B. JAPAN: Tokyo, Osaka, Kagoshima and Seoul.
C. RUSSIA: The Urals box.
D. WESTERN ALLIES (Europe): London and Paris.
E. WESTERN ALLIES (India box): Colombo and the India box.
F. WESTERN ALLIES (South Africa box): The South Africa box.
G. WESTERN ALLIES (Pearl Harbor): Pearl Harbor.
H. WESTERN ALLIES (Australia box): The Australia box.
I. WESTERN ALLIES (Manila): Manila.
33.422 MAXIMUM OIL RESERVES: Each oil reserve may contain a maximum number of oil counters. These maximums apply to each oil reserve at the end of each player turn, and any oil counters in excess of the maximum are eliminated. The maximums and starting levels for each oil reserve are:
A. EUROPEAN AXIS:
B. JAPAN:
C. RUSSIA:
D. WESTERN ALLIES (Europe):
E. WESTERN ALLIES (India box):
F. WESTERN ALLIES (South Africa box):
G. WESTERN ALLIES (Pearl Harbor):
H. WESTERN ALLIES (Australia box):
I. WESTERN ALLIES (Manila):
33.423 CAPTURE OF OIL RESERVES PROHIBITED: Oil counters may not be captured. The capture or surrender of a location listed in 33.422 reduces the defender's maximum oil reserve level but has no effect on the attacker's current or maximum oil reserve level.
33.424 DESTRUCTION OF OIL RESERVES: Oil counters in an oil reserve may not be bombed or otherwise damaged or destroyed except by the capture of objectives which reduce the maximum capacity of an oil reserve to less than the number of oil counters in that oil reserve. (EXCEPTION: If, during its initial surprise attack, Japan carries out a second air strike against Pearl Harbor, Japan may target the oil counters in the Pearl Harbor oil reserve. The oil reserve is attacked as a single target using the Naval Attack Table. No DRMs are applied to the air attack dice roll. On a “1” air attack result, one oil counter is destroyed. On a “2” air attack result, two oil counters are destroyed. On a “3” or greater air attack result, all three oil counters are destroyed).
33.425 CAPTURE OF PARIS AND LONDON: If the Axis capture both Paris and London, oil counters in the Western Allied (Europe) oil reserve may be used in conjunction with sea supply traced from the Atlantic U.S. box. If the Axis also capture Birmingham and Manchester, the Western Allied (Europe) oil reserve is eliminated altogether.
33.43 INCREASING OIL RESERVES: Oil reserves may be increased by moving oil counters from an oil source to the objective containing the oil reserve or, for Russia, the Urals box. Oil counters from newly-captured oil centers may not be used in the turn of capture. Oil counters may be moved as follows:
A. BY LAND: By tracing a land supply line from an oil source to the destination during initial supply determination or post-combat supply determination in the owning player's turn. Oil counters shipped by sea to a port may then be moved by land to their destination, and vice versa.
B. BY SEA: By tracing a sea supply line from an oil source to the destination port or mapboard box during initial supply determination or post-combat supply determination in the owning player’s turn. One transport (Japan, Western Allies, Western Allied oil shipments to Russia) or three destroyer factors (European Axis) are required to sea escort each oil counter shipped by sea. Subject to enemy air attack or naval interception, oil shipments by sea arrive immediately after they are made. Russia may not ship oil by sea.

The use of European Axis destroyers to trace oil supply by sea will usually arise only in the rare instance where the Axis have captured Mosul or a Russian oil center but do not have a land route to the captured oil center.

33.431 OIL COUNTERS REMOVED AT THE END OF EACH PLAYER TURN: At the end of each player turn, all oil counters which are not in an oil reserve are removed from play. There is no exception for Western Allied oil counters which are intended to be shipped to another destination in a future turn.

The maximum South African oil reserve is three oil counters. There may be no more than three oil counters in the South Africa box at the end of any Western Allied player turn, even if the Western Allies promise to ship any surplus oil counters to the India box in the next turn.

33.44 EUROPEAN AXIS:
33.441 OIL STATUS OF ALL UNLIMITED SUPPLY SOURCES IDENTICAL: The oil status of all European Axis unlimited supply sources is determined by the oil consumed from the European Axis oil reserve.
33.442 EUROPEAN AXIS OIL SOURCES: Each turn the European Axis may augment its oil reserve with oil from the following sources if a supply line may be traced from the indicated oil source to any objective in Germany in which unit construction is permitted:
33.4421 PLOESTI: Three oil counters from Ploesti, including by tracing a supply line from a neutral or Axis-controlled Rumania over neutral minor country hexes. The European Axis may not draw oil from Ploesti if:
A. Russia controls Ploesti and either Russia and Germany are at war or the RGT level is 45 or more; or
B. Ploesti is under Western Allied control.
33.4422 SYNTHETIC OIL PLANTS: One oil counter from each undamaged German synthetic oil plant.
33.4423 CAPTURED OIL CENTERS: Oil counters from Mosul, Maikop, Grozny and Baku if they are under Axis control. The Axis may not use oil produced in Abadan or Ahwaz, as no facilities existed for transporting it overland to the Mediterranean.
33.4424 INITIAL EUROPEAN AXIS OIL RESERVE: Until the start of the first Axis player turn following the outbreak of war between Germany and Russia or the RGT level reaching 45, European Axis oil consumption is not tracked and the European oil reserve is deemed to contain ten oil counters (33.422A).
33.45 JAPAN:
33.451 OIL STATUS OF UNLIMITED SUPPLY SOURCES: The oil status of Tokyo, Osaka, Kagoshima, Seoul and all Japanese naval and SW units in the Pacific and Indian Ocean SW boxes is determined by the oil consumed from the Japanese oil reserve.
33.452 JAPANESE OIL SOURCES: Each turn Japan may augment its oil reserve with oil from the following sources if it can trace a supply line from the indicated oil source to any objective in Japan or Manchuria in which unit construction is permitted:
33.4521 THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET: Japan may obtain the indicated number of oil counters from the international market:
A. NO EMBARGO: Unlimited, if the U.S. has not imposed an oil embargo on Japan in a previous game turn. An oil embargo has no effect on Japan's oil supplies in the game turn in which it is imposed.
B. PARTIAL EMBARGO: Three oil counters per turn for the two Japanese turns after the U.S. imposes an oil embargo.
C. FULL EMBARGO: None, beginning in the third turn after the U.S. imposes an oil embargo.
D. WAR: None, if Japan and the U.S. are at war, other than in the turn in which Japan goes to war with the U.S.
EXAMPLE: The U.S. imposes an oil embargo on Japan in Summer 1941. Japan receives three oil counters from the international market in Fall 1941, and another three oil counters in Winter 1941. Starting in Spring 1942, Japanese oil supplies depend on Japanese control of the Dutch East Indies oil centers and the number of available Japanese transports.
33.45211 OIL EMBARGO: An oil embargo may be imposed at any time during a turn, including before, during or after the Japanese player turn, when USJT reach 20. Once imposed, an oil embargo cannot be lifted.
33.4522 BRUNEI AND PALEMBANG: Three oil counters from each of Brunei and Palembang. Japan may only ship oil from Brunei or Palembang if they are under Japanese control at the start of the Japanese player turn. Oil counters produced in Brunei and Palembang must be shipped to the Japanese oil reserve to be used (EXCEPTION: Starting in Spring 1944, oil from Brunei and Palembang may be used in those hexes to offset naval oil effects. Japanese naval units which use oil in Brunei or Palembang must end the Japanese player turn in those ports). Oil counters which are unused by the end of the Japanese player turn are eliminated. Japan may not create an oil reserve in Brunei or Palembang.
33.4523 ASSIGNING TRANSPORTS TO CARRY OIL: Japan may ship oil during initial supply determination and post-combat supply determination by assigning one transport to sea escort each oil counter. Japanese transports may sea escort oil from Brunei only if Japan controls Balikpapan at the time the oil is shipped; Japanese transports may sea escort oil from Palembang only if Japan controls Batavia at the time the oil is shipped. The number of transports which Japan may assign to sea escort oil each turn is limited by the number of transports available: 1 transport: 1 oil counter; 2 transports: 2 oil counters, 3-9 transports: 3 oil counters; 10-12 transports: 4 oil counters; 13-15 transports: 5 oil counters; 16 or more transports: 6 oil counters (the maximum oil production of Brunei and Palembang per turn). Transports which are not assigned to sea escort oil may be used for other purposes.
33.46 RUSSIA:
33.461 OIL STATUS OF ALL UNLIMITED SUPPLY SOURCES IDENTICAL: The oil status of all Russian unlimited supply sources is determined by the oil consumed from the Russian oil reserve.
33.462 RUSSIAN OIL SOURCES: Each turn Russia may augment its oil reserve with oil from the following sources if it can trace a land supply line from the indicated oil source to the Urals box off the eastern edge of the European mapboard as far north as A62 and as far south as Z53 or through the Persian hexes on the eastern edge of the European mapboard if they are under Allied control and the Persian BRP route is open:
33.4621 URALS BOX: One oil counter from the Urals box.
33.4622 RUSSIAN-CONTROLLED OIL CENTERS: If under Russian control, oil counters from: Maikop, Grozny and Baku; Abadan or Ahwaz (a maximum of one oil counter per turn from Persia, provided the Persian BRP route was opened on a previous turn); Mosul (if the Allies control Turkey); and Ploesti.
33.4623 WESTERN ALLIED OIL SHIPMENTS TO RUSSIA: Oil counters may be shipped to Russia by the Western Allies, in addition to or instead of BRP grants. Provided the route in question is open, each turn a maximum of two oil counters may be sent via Murmansk and one oil counter via each of Persia, Turkey and Siberia. Each oil counter shipped counts as 10 BRPs against the limit of the BRP route used and the overall Western Allied-Russian BRP grant limit. Each oil counter shipped via Murmansk or Siberia requires a Western Allied transport; oil counters from Abadan or Ahwaz through Persia or from Mosul through Turkey do not. The Western Allied and Russian BRP levels are not affected by oil shipments. Western Allied oil counters shipped to Russia may be used in the Russian player turn in which they are received or may be added to the Russian oil reserve and used in any subsequent Russian player turn. See 40.25.
33.4624 INITIAL RUSSIAN OIL RESERVE: Until the Axis capture Maikop, Grozny or Baku, Russia does not track its oil consumption. If the Axis capture a Russian oil center, Russia tracks its oil consumption and the Russian oil reserve is considered to be at the maximum level permitted by 33.422C. If Russia restores its prewar oil situation by recapturing all its oil centers and starts its player turn in control of Maikop, Grozny and Baku and with six oil counters in its oil reserve, it is no longer required to track its oil consumption.
33.47 WESTERN ALLIES:
33.471 OIL STATUS OF UNLIMITED SUPPLY SOURCES VARIES: The oil status of each Western Allied unlimited supply source is determined as follows:
33.4711 LONDON AND PARIS: By the number of oil counters consumed from the Western Allied (Europe) oil reserve.
33.4712 PEARL HARBOR: By the number of oil counters consumed from the Western Allied Pearl Harbor oil reserve.
33.4713 MANILA: By the number of oil counters consumed from the Western Allied Manila oil reserve.
33.4714 COLOMBO: By the number of oil counters consumed from the Indian oil reserve.
33.4715 MAPBOARD BOXES: Ground units which have their supply determined while in or which are constructed in a Western Allied mapboard box are not subject to oil effects, and all Western Allied mapboard boxes are considered to be fully operational bases, regardless of the number of oil counters consumed from their oil reserves. For supply from Western Allied mapboard boxes:
A. The U.S. boxes have unlimited oil. The oil status of supply zones drawing supply from the U.S. boxes is determined as per 33.533.
B. The oil status of supply zones drawing supply from the South Africa box is determined as per 33.533.
C. The oil status of any supply zone drawing supply from the India box is determined by the number of oil counters consumed from the Indian oil reserve.
D. The oil status of any supply zone drawing supply from the Australia box is determined by the number of oil counters consumed from the Australian oil reserve.
E. Western Allied naval units, including ASW, in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean SW boxes are not subject to oil effects.
33.472 WESTERN ALLIED OIL SOURCES: Each turn the various Western Allied oil reserves may obtain the indicated number of oil counters from the following sources if a supply line can be traced from that oil source to an unlimited supply source associated with the oil reserve in question:
33.4721 U.S. BOXES: Unlimited.

During the war, the United States produced nearly two-thirds of the world's oil supply. For the Western Allies, oil is not a question of production but rather a question of having the transports necessary to ship the oil to where it is needed.

33.4722 MOSUL: Three. These oil counters may only be used to meet the oil needs of the supply zone in which Mosul is located and the Mediterranean front portion of any supply zones tracing sea supply from that supply zone. One Mosul oil counter may be shipped to Russia through Turkey each turn if this is otherwise permitted (40.25, 40.6). Oil counters produced in Mosul may not be shipped in Indian Ocean transports.
33.4723 ABADAN AND AHWAZ: Three for each. The Western Allies may draw oil from the Persian oil fields if Persia is neutral or under Western Allied control, but may not draw oil from Persian oil fields controlled by Russia, the Axis or occupied by Persian partisans. Oil drawn from the Persian oil fields may only be used to meet the oil needs of units and hexes in Persia unless shipped out of Abadan in Indian Ocean transports. One Persian oil counter may be shipped to Russia through Persia each turn if the Persian route was opened in a previous turn and such shipments are otherwise permitted (40.25, 40.5).
33.4724 WESTERN ALLIED-CONTROLLED OIL CENTERS: Oil counters from Brunei, Palembang and Ploesti if they are under Western Allied control, but only to meet the oil needs of the supply zone in which the oil center is located.
33.473 ASSIGNING TRANSPORTS TO CARRY OIL: The Western Allies may ship oil during initial supply determination and post-combat supply determination by assigning one Atlantic, Pacific or Indian Ocean transport to sea escort each oil counter. The number of transports which may be assigned to sea escort oil each turn is limited by the number of transports available in the SW box in question: 1 transport: 1 oil counter; 2 transports: 2 oil counters, 3-9 transports: 3 oil counters; 10-12 transports: 4 oil counters; 13-15 transports: 5 oil counters; and so on. Transports which are not assigned to sea escort oil may be used for other purposes.
33.4731 ATLANTIC:
A. There is no limit on the number of Western Allied Atlantic transports that may carry oil from the U.S. each turn, apart from that set out in 33.473.
B. Western Allied Atlantic transports may be used to ship oil from the Atlantic U.S. box to any eligible Western Allied controlled port or to the South Africa box.
33.4732 PACIFIC:
A. PREWAR OIL REQUIREMENTS: Prior to the outbreak of war between Japan and the Western Allies, three Western Allied Pacific transports must be assigned to carry oil counters, even though this has no effect on the Pearl Harbor, Australian and Manila oil reserves, which remain fixed at their initial levels until the outbreak of war between Japan and the Western Allies. Once the Western Allies are at war with Japan, this requirement does not apply.
B. PACIFIC OIL RESERVES: The U.S. may sea escort oil to the Pearl Harbor, Australian or Manila oil reserves from the Pacific U.S. box using Western Allied Pacific transports. Oil may not be shipped to these oil reserves through the Indian Ocean.
33.4733 INDIAN OCEAN:
A. USE OF INDIAN OCEAN TRANSPORTS: Indian Ocean transports may be used to ship oil counters:
B. INDIAN OIL CONSUMPTION: Prior to the outbreak of war between Britain and Japan, oil consumption in India is not tracked; but three Indian Ocean transports are inverted at the start of each Allied player turn to reflect the use of Indian Ocean transports to ship oil and units to India.
C. EUROPEAN SCENARIO: There is no requirement to ship oil to India in the European scenario. However, three Indian Ocean transports are inverted at the start of each Allied player turn to reflect the use of Indian Ocean transports to ship oil and units to India.
33.48 CHINA EXEMPT FROM OIL EFFECTS: China and Chinese units in China, including the Flying Tigers, are not subject to oil effects or uninversion limits.

33.5 OIL CONSUMPTION:
33.51 USE OF OIL COUNTERS: Oil counters may be used by the moving player during his player turn to:
A. Offset one or more of the three service oil effects described in 33.61A-C (air, naval and army).
B. Permit efficient use of major power construction limits (33.61D).
C. Maintain major power BRP bases (33.61E).
D. Uninvert air and naval units.
E. Exploit with armor units beyond that allowed by offsetting the army oil effect.
33.52 TIMING:
A. AIR, NAVAL AND ARMY OIL EFFECTS: Oil counters may be used to offset air, naval and army oil effects:
B. UNINVERTING AIR AND NAVAL UNITS: Oil counters may be used at any time during a player turn to uninvert air and naval units, subject to the restrictions set out in 33.74.
C. ARMORED EXPLOITATION: Additional oil counters may be used at the start of the exploitation phase to enable armor units to exploit.
D. CONSTRUCTION AND ECONOMIC OIL EFFECTS: Oil counters may be used during the unit construction phase to offset construction and economic oil effects.
E. USE OF ADDITIONAL OIL COUNTERS: Oil counters used for uninversion, additional exploitation or construction (33.72) may be used at the times such actions are allowed, with any remnant capability remaining available for use later in the same player turn.
33.521 VOLUNTARILY INCURRING OIL EFFECTS: An alliance faction may voluntarily incur one or more oil effects in order to use additional oil counters as set out in 33.72 and 33.73, or to increase its oil reserve.
33.53 OIL STATUS OF SUPPLIED AREAS:
33.531 DETERMINING OIL STATUS: The oil status of unlimited supply sources is determined prior to or during initial supply determination by the oil consumed from the oil reserve associated with the supply source (33.441, 33.451, 33.461, 33.471).
33.532 OIL IMPAIRMENT REFLECTED IN SUPPLY: If no oil effects are incurred by an unlimited supply source, the oil status of that supply source is unimpaired and the hexes and units supplied from that supply source are also unimpaired by oil effects (EXCEPTIONS: Supply zones receiving supply from the U.S. or South Africa boxes - 33.533). However, if one or more oil effects are incurred by an unlimited supply source, all hexes and units supplied from that unlimited supply source are similarly impaired.
33.533 SUPPLY ZONES DRAWING SUPPLY FROM THE U.S. OR SOUTH AFRICA BOXES: The oil status of supply zones containing ports which draw supply from the U.S. or South Africa boxes, and of other supply zones supplied from such supply zones, is determined by the number of oil counters consumed in that supply zone. The oil counters consumed may be taken from an oil center in the supply zone or shipped on transports through the relevant SW box to a port in the supply zone.
EXAMPLE: At the start of the Western Allied Spring 1943 player turn, the Western Allied European oil reserve contains four oil counters. The Western Allies have 22 transports available in the Atlantic SW box.
The Western Allies also have a Western Allied armor unit, a motorized infantry unit and three AAF in Morocco, having invaded Casablanca in a previous turn.
In Winter 1942, Britain and Northern Ireland were supplied from London; Casablanca was supplied directly from the U.S.
In the Western Allied Spring 1943 oil adjustment phase, the Western Allies use three oil counters from the Western Allied European oil reserve to offset the air, naval and army oil effects in Britain and Northern Ireland. This permits the uninversion of air and naval units in Britain and Northern Ireland. Additional air and naval units could be uninverted using the remaining oil counter in the Western Allied European oil reserve.
Western Allied units and hexes in Morocco retain the supply and oil status from the previous turn until initial supply determination of the Western Allied Spring 1943 player turn. The uninversion of air and naval units in Morocco during the oil adjustment phase would require the use of one Atlantic transport for each American oil counter used.
During initial supply determination, the Western Allies use six Atlantic transports to send oil to Britain. These oil counters are placed in the Western Allied European oil reserve.
The Western Allies again trace sea supply directly from the Atlantic U.S. box to Casablanca, using one Atlantic transport for the sea supply line. If the Western Allies wished to fully utilize their ground and air units in Morocco, they must also use one additional Atlantic transport to offset each relevant oil effect in Morocco (which does not have a local oil source). As the Western Allies have ground and air, but no naval, units in Morocco, two additional Atlantic transports would be required to ship oil to Casablanca to offset the air and army oil effects in Morocco.
Had sea supply been traced from Britain to Casablanca, the oil status of London would have determined the oil status of Casablanca, saving the Western Allies three Atlantic transports.

33.534 LOCAL OIL CONSUMPTION: Oil counters produced by a local oil center or shipped into a supply zone may be used to augment the supply traced into a supply zone, as well as supply traced from that supply zone into other supply zones.
EXAMPLE: The Western Allies trace a sea supply line from the South Africa box to Basra using one Indian Ocean transport. Mosul is undamaged and controlled by the Western Allies. The three oil counters produced by Mosul meet the oil requirements of the Middle Eastern supply zone. Other Indian Ocean transports could be used to ship additional oil counters to the Middle East if the Western Allies needed additional oil counters to uninvert air or naval units or if Mosul were damaged or under Axis control.
33.535 TIMING: A supply zone retains the supply and oil status of the previous player turn until the end of the initial supply determination segment of the current player turn (EXCEPTION: If an air, naval or army oil effect from the previous player turn is negated by the use of an oil counter during the oil adjustment phase of the current turn, air, naval or army operations are immediately restored to normal, prior to initial supply determination - 33.62). However, the uninversion of air and naval units in a supply zone requires the use of oil counters in the turn of uninversion; the oil counters used must either have been in an oil reserve or have been produced in the turn of uninversion.


33.6 OIL EFFECTS:
33.61 OIL EFFECTS: During his player turn, as set out in 33.52, the moving player determines which, if any, of the five oil effects set out below he wishes to offset. Oil effects apply to all members of an alliance faction within the affected supply zones. The effects are:

A. AIR:


B. NAVAL:


C. ARMY:

The air, naval and army oil effects have the same effect on air, naval and ground units as partial supply (30.52). Oil effects are not cumulative with the effects of partial supply.

D. CONSTRUCTION: Construction at normal construction costs requires the expenditure of oil counters. Subject to overall construction limits, each affected alliance faction may build up to 25 BRPs of units at normal construction costs if no oil counters are expended; up to 50 BRPs if one oil counter is expended; up to 75 BRPs if two oil counters are expended, and so on (27.35). Additional units are built at double the normal construction cost (27.13B; see also 27.14). A major power is considered to have incurred the construction oil effect if its alliance faction does not spend at least one oil counter to allow up to 50 BRPs of builds at normal construction cost. See 33.72 for the use of additional oil counters for construction in conjunction with uninverting air and naval factors and exploiting armor.
E. ECONOMIC: The BRP base and BRP level of each affected major power is reduced by ten percent (round down) of its current BRP base or by 10 BRPs, whichever is greater, each turn. If the economic oil effect is not offset prior to unit construction, the construction limits of the affected major powers are reduced accordingly.
33.62 RESTORATION OF OIL SUPPLIES TO ARMED FORCES: If the air, naval and army oil effects are negated, air, naval and army operations are immediately restored to normal.
33.63 REVERSAL OF CONSTRUCTION EFFECTS: If the construction oil effect is negated, the construction rates of the affected major powers are immediately restored.
33.64 NO REVERSAL OF ECONOMIC EFFECTS: If the economic oil effect is negated, further BRP base and BRP level reductions do not occur, but BRP base losses are not restored and lost BRPs are not regained.
33.65 APPLICATION OF CONSTRUCTION AND ECONOMIC OIL EFFECTS: Construction and economic oil effects are determined by the oil status of any supply zone in that major power's home country which contains an unlimited supply source or, for Britain, which traces sea supply from the Atlantic U.S. box, as designated by the owning player. No other supply zones need to offset the construction and economic oil effects. Construction and economic oil effects do not apply to Britain if all hexes in Britain are isolated or under Axis control.

33.7 UNINVERSION AND EXPLOITATION:
33.71 Subject to the restrictions set out in 33.74:
A. AIR: If an oil counter is used by an alliance faction to offset the air oil effect, that alliance faction may uninvert 25 land-based air factors at any time during its player turn.
B. NAVAL: If an oil counter is used by an alliance faction to offset the naval oil effect, that alliance faction may uninvert 50 naval factors at any time during its player turn. Carrier-based NAS are uninverted along with their carriers, at no extra cost (17.3122).
C. ARMY: If an oil counter is used by an alliance faction to offset the army oil effect, that alliance faction may exploit with 25 armor factors during the exploitation phase of its player turn.
33.72 USE OF ADDITIONAL OIL COUNTERS: Additional air and naval factors may be uninverted, or additional armor units used to exploit, beyond the limits associated with offsetting the air, naval and army oil effects (33.71), or additional construction at normal construction cost allowed beyond the 50 BRPs associated with offsetting the construction oil effect, by the use of additional oil counters. Any such exploiting armor units must not be subject to the army oil effect. Each oil counter used by an alliance faction in addition to any oil counters used to offset air, naval, army and construction oil effects allows the alliance faction to, at its option:
A. Uninvert additional air or naval factors, or exploit with additional armor factors, or construct additional BRPs of units at normal construction cost, up to a total of 25 air or naval factors uninverted, armor factors exploiting, or additional BRPs of construction, in any combination.
B. Uninvert all air factors at the start of the player turn and, if used, again at the end of the player turn.
C. Uninvert an additional 50 naval factors at any point during the player turn.
33.73 USE OF OIL COUNTERS APART FROM OFFSETTING OIL EFFECTS: An alliance faction may use an oil counter to uninvert air and naval units or to construct units at normal construction costs without offsetting the corresponding oil effect.

If the moving player elected to invoke 33.72A, one additional oil counter would allow him to uninvert five air factors, ten naval factors, and exploit with ten armor factors. Alternatively, the one additional oil counter could be used to uninvert all his air factors for the remainder of the turn or uninvert up to 50 naval factors. The most economical use of oil counters will depend on the circumstances.

33.74 RESTRICTIONS: The uninversion of air and naval units is subject to the following restrictions:
A. FULL SUPPLY REQUIRED: Air and naval units may only be uninverted if they are fully supplied, whether or not they are subject to an oil effect.
B. UNINVERSION AFTER USE ONLY AT END OF PLAYER TURN: When the rules state that an air or naval unit is "inverted until the end of the player turn", this means that the air or naval unit may not be uninverted until the final part of the player turn, after the redeployment phase. Air and naval units which engage in an activity which results in inversion may therefore not be used again until the opposing player turn. Air and naval units may be uninverted at the start of the owning player’s turn and again at the end of the friendly player turn, after use; then may be used during the opposing player turn.

There are a number of examples of this general rule. For example, air and naval units which carry out operations during their player turn (18.42, 21.311), naval units which unsuccessfully try to change base or change base between mapboard boxes or theaters (21.222, 21.224), naval air units flying combat air patrol which land on air bases rather than carriers (22.463B), are all inverted until the end of their player turn, at which point they may be uninverted and used during the ensuing opposing player turn - provided they are not redeployed (33.74D).

C. NEW CONSTRUCTION: Air and naval units may not be uninverted until after the redeployment phase of the player turn in which they are constructed or launched. If redeployed to a new base during the redeployment phase, they remain inverted through the following opposing player turn.
D. REDEPLOYMENT:
E. OPPOSING PLAYER TURN: Air and naval units may not be uninverted during the opposing player turn.
F. ONLY WITHIN AFFECTED SUPPLY ZONES: Oil counters permit the uninversion of air and naval units only in the supply zone in which the oil counter was used, or in any supply zone deriving its supply status from that supply zone.
G. TIMING AND LOCATION: Oil counters used to uninvert air and naval units must come from an oil reserve associated with an unlimited supply source from which supply was traced, or from an oil source from which a sea supply line was traced, or from a local oil source, as follows:
H. WESTERN ALLIED MAPBOARD BOXES: The uninversion of air and naval units in Western Allied mapboard boxes requires the use of oil counters from the oil reserve associated with that mapboard box (EXCEPTIONS: Air and naval units in the U.S. boxes may be uninverted without the use of oil counters).
33.741 RESTRICTION FOR EXPLOITING ARMOR: Oil counters permit the exploitation by armor units only in the supply zone in which the oil counter was used, or in any supply zone deriving its supply status from that supply zone. Oil allowing armor to exploit must be consumed either where the armor begins its turn or where the exploitation takes place. Armor units starting their turn in the South Africa or U.S. boxes may exploit by using the required oil counter from their respective oil reserves without using a transport to ship the oil into the supply zone in which they exploit.
33.75 THEATERS: Western Allied uninversion limits and limits on armor exploitation apply to each theater separately. Oil counters used in one theater have no effect on the other theater.
33.76 EXEMPTIONS FROM UNINVERSION LIMITS: Air and naval units in the following locations are uninverted at the end of the owning player’s turn, even if out of supply, without counting against the owning player’s uninversion limit:
A. SUBMARINES: All submarines (EXCEPTION: Submarines which were NRed on the mapboard).
B. ASW AND TRANSPORTS IN SW BOXES: All ASW and transports in an SW box.
C. STRATEGIC BOMBERS AND INTERCEPTORS: All strategic bombers and interceptors in an SW box.
D. WESTERN ALLIED NAVAL UNITS: All Western Allied naval units:
E. WESTERN ALLIED AIR UNITS: All Western Allied air units in the U.S. boxes, unless NRed into the U.S. box during the current player turn.
F. JAPANESE AIR UNITS: Japanese air units may be uninverted without the use of oil, at a cost of reducing the Japanese BRP base by one BRP for each uninverted air factor or its NAS equivalent. Newly-constructed kamikazes, which do not base on the mapboard (17.461), may be uninverted without counting against the Japanese uninversion limit (17.45).
33.761 UNINVERSION OF NAVAL UNITS IN A U.S. BOX DURING THE ALLIED PLAYER TURN: Western Allied air and naval units in a U.S. or SW box which are uninverted prior to the end of the Allied player turn are restricted in their activities as follows:
A. Naval units in a U.S. box may use oil counters in the U.S. to uninvert, then:
B. Naval units which uninvert in a U.S. box may not change base onto the mapboard. This restriction does not prevent inverted naval units from changing base onto the mapboard, using oil shipped into the relevant theater to uninvert, then carrying out activities in that theater.
C. The uninversion of naval units in the U.S. box does not restrict the subsequent NR of the naval units from the U.S. box in that player turn.

This rule prevents the Allied player from sidestepping transport shortages by uninverting naval units in a U.S. box “for free” at the start of his turn, changing base to Europe, carrying out a mission, then NRing the naval units back to the U.S., leaving them inverted until the process is repeated in the next turn. It also reflects the fact that early in the war the movement of oil within the United States relied on tankers which were vulnerable to Axis submarine attack. As the war progressed, an increasing amount of oil was moved by rail, so other naval units, including those launched or repaired in the U.S., may be uninverted without reliance on transports (33.76D).

33.762 INVERSION OF SUBMARINES AND INTERCEPTORS DURING THE MOVING PLAYER'S TURN: Submarines and interceptors which were used during the opposing player turn may be uninverted prior to the end of the moving player's turn (33.76), but such inversion counts against the normal uninversion limits for naval and air units, respectively.
33.77 ALLIANCE FACTIONS:
A. EUROPEAN AXIS: The European Axis uninversion limits apply to air and naval units belonging to Germany, Italy and any minor countries which have joined the European Axis as a whole. The number of air and naval factors which may be uninverted may be split between air and naval units belonging to different members of the European Axis.
B. WESTERN ALLIES: The Western Allied uninversion limits apply to air and naval units belonging to Britain, France, the U.S. and any minor countries which have joined the Western Allies as a whole. The number of air and naval factors which may be uninverted may be split between air and naval units belonging to different members of the Western Allies.
33.78 RUSSIA: Russian uninversion limits and limits on armor exploitation apply only to the European theater. There is no restriction on the number of Russian air and naval units which may be uninverted in the Pacific theater or on the number of Russian armor factors which may exploit in the Pacific theater.