34. WEATHER
34.1 OVERVIEW
34.2 WEATHER EFFECTS
34.3 AFFFECTED AREAS
34.4 WINTER PREPARATION

34.1 OVERVIEW:
34.11 DIFFERENT TYPES OF WEATHER: There are four types of weather: clear, mud, winter and monsoons. Weather varies from turn to turn for certain areas of the European and Pacific mapboards.

34.2 WEATHER EFFECTS:
34.21 CLEAR: All areas of the mapboard have clear weather unless subject to mud, winter or monsoons. There are no clear weather effects.
34.22 MUD: Offensive operations in areas afflicted by mud are subject to the following effects (EXCEPTION: Russian offensive operations – 34.221):
A. FULL OFFENSIVES PROHIBITED: Full offensives may not be conducted.
B. OVERRUNS AND EXPLOITATION PROHIBITED: Overruns and exploitation, including exploitation attacks from non-afflicted hexes into hexes afflicted by mud, are prohibited.
C. BREAKTHROUGHS PROHIBITED: Breakthroughs may not be created in hexes afflicted by mud. Eligible armor units in hexes afflicted by mud may be placed in and exploit from breakthrough hexes created in hexes which are not afflicted by mud, with the BRP offensive cost being charged to the front containing the breakthrough hex.
34.221 RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS: Russia may conduct full offensives, overrun, create breakthroughs and exploit in areas afflicted by mud. The CTL of exploiting Russian armor units is reduced by one in mud (41.925).
34.23 WINTER: Areas affected by winter weather are subject to the following effects:
A. SEABORNE INVASIONS: Seaborne invasions which involve the naval movement of ground units through western and eastern front sea hexes, and seaborne invasions of the Aleutian islands, are prohibited in winter turns.
B. BREAKTHROUGHS: Breakthroughs may not be created in mountain hexes and armor units may not exploit out of mountain hexes on the western and eastern fronts or in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia or Tannu Tuva in winter turns. This prohibition does not prevent armor units from exploiting into mountain hexes and advancing out of mountain hexes after exploitation combat.
C. FROZEN LAKES AND SWAMPS: All European lakes north of Leningrad (row D) and all eastern front swamp hexes are frozen in winter turns. Frozen swamp hexes are treated as clear hexes for all purposes; frozen lake hexes are treated as clear hexes solely for the purpose of tracing supply lines; ground units may not move or redeploy across lakes, ZoCs do not extend across lake hexsides (10.341B) and air units may not base in hex C45 (Lake Ladoga).
D. WINTER DIE ROLLS: A winter die roll is made at the beginning of every winter game turn in Europe to determine weather conditions on eastern front hexes east of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line and in Finland. A separate winter die roll is made at the beginning of every fall and every winter turn in the Pacific to determine weather conditions in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia and Tannu Tuva. Winter effects are determined by the Winter Table (34.41).
E. RUSSIAN WINTER ATTRITIONS: If Russia attritions on the eastern front east of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line in a winter turn, Russia may designate hexes in the Russian winter zone (34.32C) from which Axis attrition losses must be taken and hexes to be captured by attrition occupation (14.521).
F. AXIS OFFENSIVES: If the winter level in the Russian winter zone is “9” or more, Axis ground attacks against non-partisan units and offensive air operations are prohibited. For every Axis winter effect level in the Russian winter zone below “9”, the Axis may make one ground attack of any size; use 15 or more air factors for offensive operations; or, if permitted by a winter result of “5” or less, exploit from one breakthrough hex. Overruns, ground attacks on partisans and the use of up to 14 air factors do not count. These offensive operations are cumulative:
34.24 MONSOONS: Operations in areas affected by monsoons are subject to the following restrictions. These restrictions apply to all ground units, including Japanese ground units, partisans and the Chindit.
A. MOVEMENT: Swamp, jungle and jungle/mountain hexes affected by monsoons may not be entered by ground units during the movement phase, including by sea and air transport.
B. COMBAT: Ground units in swamp, jungle and jungle/mountain hexes affected by monsoons may not participate in offensive operations, including embarking for sea or air transport, seaborne invasions or airdrops; ground units in other hexes may not attack into or enter swamp, jungle and jungle/mountain hexes affected by monsoons during the combat phase. Attrition combat is permitted, although swamp, jungle and jungle/mountain hexes affected by monsoons may not be selected for attrition occupation or retreat.
C. UNIT CONSTRUCTION AND REDEPLOYMENTS PERMITTED: Unit construction in and redeployments to, from and through swamp, jungle and jungle/mountain hexes affected by monsoons are permitted.
34.25 DIFFERENT TYPES OF WEATHER ON THE SAME FRONT: Areas of the eastern and Asian fronts may be affected by different types of weather or different levels of winter weather. As a result, different restrictions on offensives operations may apply to different parts of the eastern and Asian fronts. The rules governing attritions and offensive operations for fronts apply to the front as a whole in such situations:
A. EASTERN FRONT:
B. ASIAN FRONT:
34.26 FINNS AND SWEDES: Finns and Swedes may participate in ground attacks and offensive air operations beyond those allowed by the European Axis winter preparation level in areas subject to the Winter Table result (34.41), up to the number permitted by their superior winter preparation (34.42).

34.3 AFFECTED AREAS:
34.31 MUD: Mud occurs on spring turns on the eastern front east of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line, in Finland, and in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia and Tannu Tuva.
34.32 WINTER EFFECTS:
A. MEDITERRANEAN FRONT: Mediterranean front hexes in continental Europe are deemed to have a winter result of "4". Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar, Italy, Yugoslavia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and European Turkey are included; Mediterranean islands are not.
B. POLAND AND THE WESTERN FRONT: All eastern front hexes west of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line except Finland and all western front hexes are deemed to have a winter result of "6".
C. RUSSIAN WINTER ZONE: A winter die roll is made at the beginning of every winter game turn to determine winter effects in Finland and all eastern front hexes east of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line (EXCEPTION: Winter effects do not apply to a border war between Russia and Rumania for Bessarabia). The Russian winter die roll is subject to a +5 modifier, and is modified by the applicable winter preparation levels.
D. SIBERIA, MANCHURIA, MONGOLIA AND TANNU TUVA: A winter die roll is made at the beginning of every fall and every winter game turn to determine winter effects in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia and Tannu Tuva. The fall die roll is subject to a +2 modifier. The winter die roll is subject to a +5 modifier.
34.33 MONSOONS: Monsoons occur in summer in India, Ceylon, Burma, Thailand and French Indochina.
34.331 FIRST TURN EXEMPTION FOR JAPANESE FORCES: If Japan achieves surprise (51.71), Japanese forces are not affected by monsoons in the turn Japan declares war on Britain or Britain and the U.S.

34.4 WINTER PREPARATION:
34.41 WINTER PREPARATION LEVELS: Winter effects in areas affected by winter are reduced by the winter preparation level of the affected alliance faction. The maximum winter preparation level that can be achieved by any nationality is six, regardless of production or automatic increases. The starting winter preparation levels are:
A. EUROPEAN AXIS: 0.
B. JAPAN: 2.
C. WESTERN ALLIES: 0.
D. RUSSIA: 6.

Winter Table - 34.41

0

No effect

1

Movement of armor units during exploitation reduced by 1.

2

Movement of armor units during exploitation reduced by 2.

3

Movement of armor units during exploitation reduced by 3; overruns and airdrops are prohibited.

4

Movement of armor units during exploitation is reduced by 4.

5

Movement of armor units during exploitation is reduced by 5. Fortifications and railheads may not be constructed.

6

Exploitation is prohibited.

7

CTL reduced by one. Infantry units and replacements are subject to a -1 DM unless defending in a capital, objective hex, IC, bridgehead or railhead.

8

Air Nationality DRM reduced by one.

9

Ground attacks against non-partisan units and offensive air operations are prohibited. Defensive air support is restricted to the hex in which the air factors are based.

10

Enemy units must expend only one, not two, movement factors to leave the ZoC of armor units.

11

Armor units are treated as infantry units.

Modifiers

+5

winter turns in the Russian winter zone.

+5

winter turns in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia and Tannu Tuva.

+2

fall turns in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia and Tannu Tuva.

Explanation: Each level of winter effects includes all the effects of all lower results.

The “Russian winter zone” consists of all eastern front hexes east of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line and in Finland.

Winter preparation: Winter effects are reduced by winter preparation. The starting winter preparation levels are: Russia, Finland, Sweden: 6; Japan: 2; Other: 0. Winter preparation levels may be increased by production, but may not exceed 6.

Attrition combat: The difference in winter preparation levels modifies attrition die rolls (+/-1 for each level).

Russian attritions in the Russian winter zone permit the Russian player some control over attrition results (14.521).

Offensive operations in the Russian winter zone: For every Axis winter effect level below "9", the Axis may make one ground attack of any size; use 15 or more air factors for offensive operations; or, if permitted by a winter result of "5" or less, exploit from one breakthrough hex. Overruns, ground attacks on partisans and the use of up to 14 air factors do not count.

Exploitation: Exploiting armor units may always move at least one hex.

Pacific effects: Movement reductions for exploiting armor for winter effects 1-5 are halved, round down, in the Pacific theater. Winter effect 10 does not apply in the Pacific theater.

Winter turns in the Russian winter zone; winter and fall turns in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia and Tannu Tuva: One die is rolled, subject to the above modifiers.

Automatic winter levels:

6

Eastern front west of the Nazi-Soviet Pact line

6

Western front

4

Mediterranean front hexes in continental Europe


34.42 MINOR COUNTRIES: All minor country units, including Vlasovs, begin the game with a winter preparation level of zero (EXCEPTION: Finland and Sweden begin the game with a winter preparation level of 6). This winter preparation level is increased by their controlling alliance faction's winter preparation level.
34.43 PARTISANS: Partisans have a winter preparation level of six.
34.44 WINTER PREPARATION INCREASES:
34.441 PRODUCTION: The European Axis, Japan and the Western Allies may increase their winter preparation levels by production. Russia may not (42.24H).
34.442 AUTOMATIC INCREASES: The European Axis and Japan automatically increase their winter preparation levels by two at the end of a winter game turn in which the following conditions are met. Such increases are in addition to any winter preparation increases from production (34.441), are cumulative and apply in all subsequent winter turns:
A. EUROPEAN AXIS: If Germany was at war with Russia and had at least one ground unit in the Russian winter zone.
B. JAPAN: If Japan was at war with Russia and had at least one ground unit in Siberia, Manchuria, Mongolia or Tannu Tuva.
EXAMPLE: Germany invades Russia in Summer 1941. In Winter 1942, the Axis will have two winter preparation results from the automatic increase resulting from the 1941 Russian winter; in Winter 1943 the Axis will have four winter preparation results; in Winter 1944 the Axis will reach the maximum of six winter preparation results. These results could be augmented by the use of RPs for winter preparation.
34.443 Automatic winter preparation increases do not count against the production limit of one winter preparation result per year
34.444 APPLICATION OF WINTER PREPARATION:
A. Winter preparation results apply to all members of the alliance faction which achieves the result.
B. Each alliance faction must reveal its cumulative winter preparation level at the start of each winter turn. Winter preparation results triggered during a winter turn do not affect play during that turn and are not announced until the following year.
EXAMPLE: Germany produces winter preparation in 1940. If the German player waits until Winter 1940 to trigger the winter preparation result, it does not affect the Winter 1940 game turn, but is kept secret until the start of the Winter 1941 game turn.