41. RESEARCH
41.1 OVERVIEW
41.2 RESEARCH POINTS (RPs)
41.3 ALLOCATION OF RPs
41.4 EFFECTS OF GENERAL RESEARCH
41.5 SECRECY
41.6 POOLING RPs
41.7 ACTIVATION OF RPs
41.8 RESEARCH RESULTS
41.9 NATIONALITY MODIFIERS AND CTLs

41.1 OVERVIEW:
41.11 Each major power except China receives Research Points (RPs) during the opening setup and in the 1940 and each subsequent YSS.
41.12 RPs are secretly assigned to specific research and production projects during the YSS and may be activated during the ensuing year. Any number of eligible production projects may be triggered in a single turn. RPs in a project which is not selected accumulate in that project and may be used in a subsequent year.

41.2 RESEARCH POINTS (RPs):
41.21 BASIC RP ALLOTMENTS: The basic allotment of RPs for each major power is:
A. GERMANY: 8.
B. ITALY: 2.
C. JAPAN: 6.
D. RUSSIA: 6.
E. BRITAIN: 6.
F. FRANCE: 3.
G. U.S.: 10 (once the U.S. is at war with both Germany and Japan).
41.211 AMERICAN RPs PRIOR TO ENTRY: During each YSS before it enters the war, the U.S. receives one RP for every ten USAT and USJT levels (combine both tension levels and round down). The effective tension levels for the winter turn are used.
EXAMPLE: At the end of 1941, the U.S. is at war with Japan and the effective USAT level is 39. In the 1942 YSS, the U.S. receives five RPs for the Pacific and three RPs for Europe, in addition to the RPs it receives for its BRPs and BRP growth.
41.212 CHINA: China never receives RPs, does not conduct research and may not use RPs for production.
41.22 ADDITIONAL RPs FROM BRP LEVELS: In addition to its basic RP allotment, in each YSS (but not during the opening setup of the Campaign game and 1939 scenarios) each major power receives one RP for every 50 BRPs in its BRP total.
41.221 AMERICAN RPs IN A EUROPEAN SCENARIO: In a European scenario, the U.S. receives one additional RP in the 1941 YSS, three additional RPs in the 1942 YSS, and five additional RPs in the 1943 and each subsequent YSS, to reflect RPs from the Pacific.
41.23 ADDITIONAL RPs FROM BRP GROWTH: Each major power receives one additional RP for every 25 BRPs of growth (round down) in each YSS. This additional RP is received for that year only and is based on BRP growth only for that year. The BRP growth itself is unaffected. Increases in the BRP value of Russian ICs and base increases from mobilizations (36.21) are not counted.
41.24 USE OF DPs AS RPs FOR INTELLIGENCE: The intelligence category as a whole is considered an eligible project for DP allocation. DPs allocated to intelligence act as RPs. A player may therefore allocate up to half his RPs (41.31A) and one-third of his DPs (49.31) to intelligence. The limit on the number of points (the total of RPs and DPs) allocated to each intelligence project, including general research, still applies (41.31B).
41.25 ADDITIONAL JAPANESE RPs FOR INTELLIGENCE: In addition to its normal RP allotment, during the 1939 opening setup and in each subsequent YSS Japan receives one additional RP which may only be allocated to intelligence projects. This RP is not taken into account in determining the number of Japanese RPs which may be assigned to other research categories (41.31A).

41.3 ALLOCATION OF RPs:
41.31 RESTRICTIONS ON RP ALLOCATION: RPs may be allocated to the projects set out in the research and production tables as indicated, subject to the following restrictions:
A. CATEGORY LIMITS: No more than half (rounded up) of an alliance faction's allotted RPs may be placed in a single category (air, naval, military, atomic or intelligence) each year.
B. PROJECT LIMITS: Each year an alliance faction may allocate up to three RPs in a single research or production project, including general research, subject to the restrictions set out in 41.31C-E. This basic limit of three RPs per project per year is increased as follows:
EXAMPLE: In the 1944 YSS, the U.S. has 650 BRPs. The Western Allies may assign up to six RPs to any project in a category where they have three general research breakthroughs, five RPs to any project in a category where they have two general research breakthroughs, four RPs to any project in a category where they have one general research breakthrough, and the normal three RPs to any project in a category where they have no general research breakthroughs.
C. HIGH TECHNOLOGY LIMITS: For high technology research and production projects:
are subject to the following limits: no more than one RP may be placed in the first year in which RPs are placed in the project; no more than two RPs may be placed in the second year in which RPs are placed in the project; and so on, with the number of RPs permitted increasing by one for each year in which RPs are placed in the project, up to the maximum number of RPs allowed for that year (41.31B).
D. DATE RESTRICTIONS: RPs may not be assigned to the following research and production projects until the indicated date. The 1942 YSS restriction for Western Allied and Japanese RPs applies regardless of when war breaks out between Japan and the Western Allies. Prohibited dates are indicated by shaded boxes on each alliance faction's research record sheets:
E. NATIONALITY RESTRICTIONS: RPs may not be placed in projects not listed on the research record sheets for the alliance faction in question. The alliance factions which may allocate RPs for specific projects and the major power to which results apply are indicated in the research tables. Similarly, nationality restrictions on production projects are set out in the description of each production project in rule 42 and in the research tables. All alliance factions may conduct general research if they may allocate RPs to at least one other research project in that category.
41.32 PREPARING PRODUCTION FACILITIES: Subject to the above restrictions, RPs may be allocated to the production of strategic bombers, uranium plants and plutonium reactors before the allocating alliance faction has achieved the research result required to begin production, but such RPs may not be triggered until the required research result has been achieved.

41.4 EFFECTS OF GENERAL RESEARCH:
41.41 Five of the research projects represent general research areas (air, naval, military, atomic and intelligence). The remaining research and production projects are specific programs, each of which is related to one of the five general research areas.
41.42 General research does not yield immediate dividends, but instead generates modifiers which increase the chances for success in related research projects for all pooling nations and reduces the cost of force pool additions and other production projects. This allows each player to channel his resources into one or more general areas, or into specific projects in the hope of a quick result which will yield immediate military, economic or political benefits.
41.43 EFFECTS OF GENERAL RESEARCH BREAKTHROUGHS:
A. RESEARCH: Each breakthrough generates a +1 modifier for research die rolls for all other projects in that category. Breakthroughs in general research do not modify subsequent general research.
B. PRODUCTION: Each breakthrough reduces the cost of force pool additions and other production projects in that category by one. Because research takes place before production, breakthroughs reduce production costs in the turn in which they are achieved. Production projects always requires the investment of at least one RP for each increment of increase, regardless of the number of applicable breakthroughs.

41.5 SECRECY:
41.51 CODE NAMES: Each player must assign a code name to each research project in which he places one or more RPs. Each such project retains the code name it is assigned for the entire game. Once assigned, code names may not be changed. Research die rolls are announced using these code names and are open for all players to see. Thus a player might announce a die roll for project “Rattle­snake”, after which he makes his research die roll openly (although the number of RPs he allocated to that project would remain secret until the end of the game). No code names are assigned to production projects.
41.52 IMPLEMENTATION: The simplest way to implement the use of code names for research products is for each player to keep track of the die rolls made for each research project by code name. The opponent can consult this sheet whenever he likes. Alternatively, each player may record the other players' code names and research die rolls as they are announced.
41.53 REVEALING RESEARCH RESULTS: General research results are never revealed. Other research results are announced when they actually affect play. The code name of successful research projects and the exact numerical result achieved are not revealed. For example, SW modifiers are revealed during the combat phase in which they apply. If one side develops the atomic bomb, this becomes known to the other side only when an atomic attack is made. For projects such as jets and rockets, which are implemented gradually, the opponent learns of the highest research result achieved only when it comes into effect (41.84).
EXAMPLE: During the opening setup, Russia allocates 1 RP to covert operations, secretly assigning the project the code-name "Beria". At the start of the Fall 1939 turn, the Russian player announces that he is rolling for project Beria and openly rolls a 5. The die roll of 5, plus 1 for the RP assigned to project Beria, yields a "6" result on the covert operations table, allowing Russia to negate one enemy DP. The Russian player does not reveal this result until Germany announces a diplomatic die roll in a target and the Russian player elects to use his covert operation. Even when the covert operation is used, the Russian player does not reveal that his covert operations project has been assigned the code name "Beria".
41.54 If a player is able to deduce the true nature of an opponent's projects from the pattern of die rolls, he may do so. A record sheet for enemy research is provided to assist in such detective work.

It is sporting to assign code names which hint at the true nature of the project, but this is by no means mandatory. In any case, code names used for research projects reveal something of the personality of the player concerned.


41.6 POOLING RPs:
41.61 COOPERATION: German and Italian RPs are pooled and may be assigned to any eligible project. In some cases the benefits accrue to both Germany and Italy, while in other cases only one of the Axis major powers benefits. Similarly, Britain, France and the United States pool their RPs, with the benefits accruing to every Western Allied major power in some cases and to only one Western Allied major power in others. Russian and Japanese research is carried on separately.
41.62 The limits on the number of RPs which may be placed in any one category (41.31A) apply after RPs are pooled from the major powers in an alliance. Thus the European Axis as a whole may never put more than half their RPs in one category.
41.63 Once pooled, RPs lose their specific major power association and may be allocated to any project which any of the pooling major powers is eligible to select.
41.64 EFFECTS OF SURRENDER: RPs from major powers which surrender remain in play. France and Italy receive no RPs if they are conquered. Britain continues to receive RPs after it surrenders. The Western Allies may use RPs to increase the British force pool after Britain surrenders, but may not bring back units which were removed from the British force pool as a result of Britain's surrender.

41.7 ACTIVATION OF RPs:
41.71 SELECTION OF RESEARCH PROJECTS: Immediately before the Axis player turn, the Axis, Western Allies, Russia and Japan may each select one research project from each of the five research categories. For the restrictions on the activation of RPs in Western Allied CTL research, see 41.77C; for the restrictions on the activation of RPs in production projects, see 42.13.
41.72 AT LEAST ONE RP REQUIRED: A project may not be selected unless it has at least one RP in it.
41.73 AXIS RESEARCH ROLLS MADE FIRST: The Axis make their research die rolls first. All research die rolls for a given alliance are simultaneous, so one research result (such as espionage) doesn't affect another research result (such as general research) until the following turn.
41.74 EFFECT OF BREAKTHROUGHS ON PRODUCTION: Because RPs in production projects are activated during the player turn, after research die rolls are made, breakthroughs affect production costs in the turn in which they occur (41.43B).
41.75 RESEARCH DIE ROLLS: Whenever the research rules refer to "die roll(s)", the rolling player rolls three dice and disregards the highest and lowest die rolls. The remaining die roll is used to determine what level of research result is achieved. The following modifiers are applied to the die roll and the resulting number is used to determine the research result achieved:
A. +1 for each unused RP in the project;
B. +1 for each breakthrough in the project's research category; and
C. +/-# for any modifier from a previous research result for the project, as indicated by a number in square brackets ("[ ]") at the end of a research result (prewar results appear in square brackets in the 1939 column of the research record sheets).
D. -#, where negative modifiers apply based on the alliance faction’s current level for that project:
E. +/-# for any other modifiers listed in the research tables.

EXAMPLE: The European Axis have two air general research breakthroughs and place two RPs in Air Nationality DRM research, having achieved a “5” research result for Air Nationality DRM in the previous year (a “[+3]” result). Germany has an Air Nationality DRM of two. The modifiers are +2 (air general research breakthroughs) +2 (two RPs) +3 (the [+3] from the research result in the previous year) -2 (the modifier for the current German Air Nationality DRM level) = +5. The European Axis need to roll a “5” or “6” to achieve an Air Nationality DRM increase, although any roll will get them closer to their goal.

41.76 UNUSED RPs: Any RPs which have not been activated by the end of the year, including DPs used as RPs for intelligence projects, remain in the assigned project and are carried over into the following year (EXCEPTION: RPs allocated to conventional submarine and transport production (42.23A, 42.23C) must be activated during the year in which they are allocated). All RPs in a research project are eliminated when a die roll is made for that project. RPs in a production project are eliminated when used, but a player may elect to use only some of the RPs allocated, saving the remainder for future production.
41.77 RESTRICTIONS:
A. ONE CATEGORY PER TURN: Only one project from each of the five categories may be selected as a project for a research die roll each turn. It is therefore illegal to make a die roll for general research and a research project in the same category in the same turn.
B. ONE ROLL PER PROJECT PER YEAR: It illegal to make two research die rolls for the same project in the same year, because the first die roll eliminates all the RPs in the project (41.76) and a project may not be selected unless it contains RPs (41.72).
C. WESTERN ALLIED CTL RESEARCH: The Western Allies may not roll for CTL research until the year after American ground forces first engage in attrition or offensive operations against opposing ground forces in the European theater, as either the attacker or defender, or 1943, whichever is earlier. This does not prohibit the Western Allies from allocating RPs to combat training research in earlier years.
41.78 REASSIGNMENT OF RPs DURING THE YEAR: Immediately after a research roll of “1” or “2” for any project, prior to making any other research rolls, the rolling alliance faction may reassign RPs to that project in order to increase the research roll to a maximum of “3”, as follows:
A. One RP may be reassigned to a project for which a “2” was rolled; one or two RPs may be reassigned to a project for which a “1” was rolled. Each reassigned RP increases the research roll by one.
B. Reassigned RPs must have been allocated to research or production projects in the same category (air, naval, military or intelligence) as the project to which the RPs are being reassigned. RPs which have already been activated may not be reassigned.
C. RPs reassigned to increase a research roll are not subject to project (41.31B) and high technology (41.31C) limits.
D. DPs assigned to intelligence projects are treated as RPs and may be reassigned.
E. RPs in atomic research may not be reassigned.
F. The reassignment of RPs is secret and is only revealed if there is an enemy spy ring in that category and the reassignment of RPs removes all the RPs from a new project about which the opponent was previously informed.

41.8 RESEARCH RESULTS:
41.81 DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH RESULTS:
A. "*" RESULTS: If a result has a "*" by it, no further research in that project is permitted. The research tables contain the following "*" results:
B. CUMULATIVE RESULTS: The effect of research in the following projects is determined by the number of successful results: general research, air nationality DRM, air range, strategic bombers, air defense, naval nationality DRM, anti-submarine warfare, torpedoes, combat training and radar.
C. NON-CUMULATIVE RESULTS: The effect of research in the following projects is determined by the highest result achieved; jets, advanced submarines, rockets, uranium separation, plutonium production, the atomic bomb and Anglo-French cooperation.
D. ONE-TIME RESULTS: Controlled reaction has only one result and no further research is required once success has been achieved.
E. DISPOSABLE RESULTS: Successful results in the following projects are exhausted once used, and additional research is required to attain another result: harbor attack, counter-intelligence, covert operations, espionage and subversion.
41.82 "[+#]" AND "[-#]" RESULTS: A "[+#]" or "[-#]" by a research result indicates the modifier which applies to the next research roll for that project. Such modifiers are not cumulative - the modifier achieved from the most recent research result applies to the next research roll for that project. A player may select a lesser result (41.86) in order to preserve a higher modifier for a future research roll in a project.
EXAMPLES: In Winter 1939, the Western Allies achieve a "5" research result for Espionage. The "[+3]" associated with the result means the Western Allies get a +3 modifier if they roll for Espionage in a subsequent year.
In Summer 1940, the European Axis achieve a "7+" research result for torpedoes. In addition to more effective torpedoes, the European Axis incur an adverse modifier for their next torpedo research roll, because of the "[-1]" associated with the "7+" research result. This has the incidental, but intended, effect of making it difficult to achieve repeated torpedo results (there are also negative modifiers for ASW research).

41.83 IMMEDIATE IMPLEMENTATION: Research results are implemented immediately (EXCEPTIONS: 41.84).
41.84 GRADUAL IMPLEMENTATION:
A. Results for jets, advanced submarines and rockets (“9” and greater) are implemented gradually, at the rate of one result per turn, until the highest result achieved takes effect. One jet factor, advanced submarine or rocket base is added to the successful alliance faction's force pool each turn.
B. When an anti-submarine warfare research result of “8+” is achieved, the first result is implemented immediately, and the second result is implemented in the following turn.
41.85 RESULTS MUST BE ANNOUNCED TO BE EFFECTIVE: A player need not employ jets, anti-submarine warfare, or flying bombs/rockets for research improvements to apply, but turns in which such results are not announced are not counted and delay the implementation of the higher results. A player may thus not suddenly unleash long range rockets on his opponent without announcing the lesser versions of the final product on previous turns. This reflects the development aspect of research. ASW modifiers must be announced whenever they modify a submarine warfare, submarine attack or submarine harbor attack dice roll.
41.86 LESSER RESULTS: A player may choose to implement a lower-ranked research result if he wishes, including a "No Effect" result if it is available.
41.87 PREWAR RESEARCH: At the start of the campaign game, the following research results and modifiers apply:
A. GERMANY: The European Axis are deemed to have achieved a “4” result for torpedoes in 1939, giving them a [+2] modifier for torpedoes in 1940.
B. WESTERN ALLIES: Air range: [+3]; one strategic bomber result; radar [+5]. The Western Allies are deemed to have achieved a “3” result for anti-submarine warfare in 1939, giving them a [+1] modifier for anti-submarine warfare in 1940. Because the Western Allied strategic bomber result was achieved prior to the outbreak of war, the Western Allies do not incur a -1 modifier from their pre-war strategic bomber research result.
C. RUSSIA: None.
D. JAPAN: Air range: [+5]; one torpedo result. Because the Japanese torpedo result was achieved prior to the outbreak of war, Japan does not incur a -1 modifier from its pre-war torpedo research result.
41.88 GENERAL APPLICABILITY OF WESTERN ALLIED RESEARCH RESULTS: Jet, air range, torpedo and ASW technology research tables list both Britain and the U.S. as eligible researching major powers. The Western Allies may only roll for each of these projects once per year, but the results apply to both Western Allied major powers.

41.9 NATIONALITY MODIFIERS AND CTLs:
41.91 AIR AND NAVAL NATIONALITY DRMs: When one side increases its Air or Naval Nationality DRM, it raises that DRM for all major powers, minor allies, associated minor countries and other non-partisan units in that alliance. A country which joins an alliance after a Nationality DRM research result is achieved immediately gains the benefits of that research result. A country which switches sides is affected only by the Nationality DRM research results of its new alliance partners.
EXAMPLE: If both the Axis and the Western Allies increased their Air Nationality DRM by one, there would be no net change in the air combat modifiers between the two alliances, although air attacks on naval units by the Axis and Western Allies would be more effective, and the Russians would fall behind Germany, Italy and all Axis minors in air combat. Both Russian and Japanese DRMs are distinct from those of the Axis and Western Allies, and their Air Nationality DRMs would be unaffected.
41.92 CTLs:
41.921 STARTING LEVELS: European Axis, Western Allied, Russian, Japanese and Nationalist Chinese CTLs are distinct. At the start of the game, the following CTLs are in effect:
A. TWO: Germany, Finland, Sweden, Vlasovs, Japan and Communist China.
B. ONE: All other nationalities, partisans.
41.922 INCREASING CTLs: Combat training level increases from research increase the CTLs of all major powers, minor allies, associated minor countries and other non-partisan units in that alliance. The CTL of countries which switch sides is governed by the number of CTL increases that have been achieved by their new alliance faction.
41.923 RESTRICTIONS ON CTL INCREASES: The Communist Chinese CTL of two, the Nationalist Chinese CTL of one and the partisan CTL of one may never be increased.
41.924 TEMPORARY CTL EFFECTS: The CTL of ground units is reduced by one in the following situations:
A. All ground units in partial supply or subject to army oil effects. This reduction is not cumulative if both conditions apply (30.522A, 33.61C).
B. All ground units subject to a winter effect of “7” (34.41).
C. Armor units exploiting from an invasion hex (16.15).
D. Russian armor units exploiting from a mud hex (34.221).
E. After a defensive atomic attack (43.424B).
41.925 EFFECTS OF CTLs: CTLs have the following effects:
A. ATTRITION: Attrition die rolls are increased or decreased by the difference in CTLs between the units involved (14.42B).
B. COMBAT ROUNDS: A CTL of one or less permits only one round of ground combat or seaborne invasion. A CTL of two allows a second round of ground combat or seaborne invasion. A CTL of three allows a third round of ground combat or seaborne invasion, and so on (15.82A, B).
C. BREAKTHROUGHS: Armor units with a CTL of zero may not create breakthroughs or exploit (15.82C).
D. EXPLOITATION MOVEMENT: Armor units with a CTL of one have their exploitation movement allowance halved (round up). Armor units with a CTL of two or more may exploit normally.
E. EXPLOITATION ATTACKS: Infantry, replacements and partisans incur a -1 DM if attacked by at least one exploiting armor with a CTL of two or more, unless defending in a capital, objective hex, IC, bridgehead or railhead. Airborne, marine, commando, Chindit and armor units (subject to 15.331) are not subject to this -1 DM when attacked by exploiting armor.
F. REDUCED DM: Infantry and replacements with a CTL of zero or less incur a -1 DM unless defending in a capital, objective hex, IC, bridgehead or railhead; or in their home country. Canadian, South African and Free French units are considered to be “in their home country” when defending in Britain (82.13, 58.624).