42. PRODUCTION
42.1 PRODUCTION
42.2 PRODUCTION COSTS
42.22 AIR
42.23 NAVAL
42.24 MILITARY
42.25 ATOMIC
42.26 INTELLIGENCE
42.3 FORCE POOL INCREASES
42.331 AIR UNITS
42.332 INFANTRY
42.333 ARMOR
42.334 NAVAL UNITS

42.1 PRODUCTION:
42.11 EFFECTS OF GENERAL RESEARCH: RPs invested in production generate force pool increases or other results without the need for a die roll. Production costs are reduced by one for each general research breakthrough in the relevant category.
42.12 MINIMUM EXPENDITURE OF ONE RP REQUIRED: Regardless of the number of general research breakthroughs achieved or other factors reducing production costs (42.26D-F), at least one RP must be used for each factor, increment of force pool increase or other result. For example, after two air breakthroughs, the RP costs of air factor force pool additions (42.22A) in a single year are: one RP for the first five BRPs of air units; one additional RP for the next five BRPs of air units, two additional RPs for the next five BRPs of air units, and so on. Thus 15 BRPs of air units would cost four RPs, while 20 BRPs of air units would cost seven RPs.
42.13 SELECTION OF PRODUCTION PROJECTS: During their player turn (EXCEPTION: Ultra and Magic increases are triggered at the end of the research phase), the Axis, Western Allies, Russia and Japan may each select any number of production projects (EXCEPTIONS: No more than one of each of the following may be produced each turn: airbases, naval air training, shipbuilding, ports, fortifications, railheads, synthetic oil plants, ICs, uranium plants and plutonium reactors).
42.14 RPs in production projects are activated when they take effect. In most cases this will be during the unit construction phase.
42.15 An alliance faction may not name the same production project twice in the same year (EXCEPTIONS: Airbases, ports, fortifications and railheads).
42.16 PRODUCTION RESTRICTIONS:
A. 1939 PRODUCTION PROHIBITED: Production in 1939 is prohibited (RPs may not be allocated to production in 1939).
B. LIMITS ON PRODUCTION RESULTS LIMITED BY YEAR: The number of increments of production that may be triggered in production projects that create air and military units is limited according to the year: 1940-41: one increment in each year; 1942: two increments; 1943: three increments; and so on. Up to five BRPs of surplus production may be carried over into a subsequent year (42.335). This restriction applies to the following production projects:
42.17 REVEALING PRODUCTION RESULTS: Production results are announced as follows:
A. FORCE POOL INCREASES: The triggering of RPs for force pool increases are announced during the unit construction phase in which the RPs are triggered, whether or not this results in an immediate force pool increase. A player may not conceal the triggering of RPs for force pool increases, even if the force pool increase itself is deferred (42.336).
B. NAVAL AIR TRAINING, SHIPBUILDING, OIL PLANTS, ICs: Increases in naval air training and shipbuilding are announced in the unit construction phase in which they are first applicable, whether or not they are used. Additional oil plants or industrial centers are announced the turn they are placed.
C. WINTER PREPARATION: Winter preparation results are announced in the first winter to which they are applied.
D. SHOCK ARMIES: Shock army results are announced when Russian 3-3 infantry units exceed normal stacking or attacking limits.
E. FORTIFICATIONS: The use of RPs for fortifications is revealed when the fortification is constructed.
F. ATOMIC FACILITIES: The construction of atomic facilities is not announced.

42.2 PRODUCTION COSTS
42.21 EXPLANATION OF PRODUCTION COSTS: The first number listed is the RP cost of the first factor or other increment added to the force pool or the first production result generated, the second number the RP cost of the second factor or increment, and so on. Three dots indicate the production profile continues for the fifth and subsequent increments, as set out on the research record sheets. The costs apply each year: force pool additions during a previous year have no effect on the cost of subsequent force pool additions.

42.22 AIR:
A. AIR FORCE POOL INCREASES: 2, 3, 4, 5... Each result allows the alliance faction to add five BRPs of army air, naval air or interceptors, in any combination, to the force pool of one or more eligible major powers in that alliance faction. France may not produce naval air units or interceptors; Russia may not produce naval air units; Italy may not produce interceptors; China may not produce army air, naval air or interceptors. Remnants may be retained for future use (42.336).
B. STRATEGIC BOMBERS: 2, 3, 4, 5… only after a "9+" research result for strategic bombers. Each result allows the alliance faction to add five BRPs of strategic bomber factors to the force pool of one or more eligible major powers in that alliance faction. Western Allied strategic bomber production in Europe is a separate production project from American strategic bomber production in the Pacific. Western Allied strategic bomber production for European use may begin in 1940; American strategic bomber production for Pacific use may begin in 1944. Italy, France and China may not produce strategic bombers. See 24.23 and 42.331B for restrictions. Remnants may be retained for future use (42.336).
C. AIR TRANSPORTS: 3, 4, 5, 6... Each result allows the alliance faction to add an air transport factor to the force pool of an eligible major power in that alliance faction. Italy, France and China may not produce air transport units.
D. JETS: One jet factor is added to the force pool of the eligible major powers in the rolling alliance faction, at no additional RP cost, for each research result for jets. A "9" research result for jets adds one jet factor; a "10" result, two jet factors; an "11" result, three jet factors, and a "12+" result, four jet factors. Germany, Japan and Russia may create no more than four jet factors; Britain and the U.S. may each create no more than two jet factors; Italy, France and China may not create jets.
E. AIRBASES: 1, 1 for no more than two additional airbases each year, at the rate of one airbase per turn. Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Britain and the U.S. only.

42.23 NAVAL:
A. SUBMARINES:
B. ASW: 2, 3, 4, 5... Each result allows an eligible major power to add one ASW factor to its force pool. Japan, Britain and the U.S. only.
C. TRANSPORTS: 1 transport for each RP, no limit. RPs allocated to transport production must be activated during the year in which they are allocated. Japan, Britain and the U.S. only.
D. NAVAL AIR TRAINING: 3, 4, 5, 6 for each level of naval air training, to a maximum increase of four per year, at the rate of one increase per turn. Germany, Italy, Japan, Britain and the U.S. only.
E. SHIPBUILDING: 2, 3, 4, 5 for each shipbuilding increase, to a maximum increase of four per year, at the rate of one increase per turn. All major powers except Russia and China.
F. PORTS: 3 per port, for no more than two port counters each year, at the rate of one port counter per turn. Japan and the U.S. only.

42.24 MILITARY:
A. INFANTRY, ARMOR, AND FLAK FORCE POOL INCREASES: 2, 3, 4, 5... Each result allows the alliance faction to add five BRPs of infantry, armor and flak units, in any combination, to the force pool of one or more major powers in that alliance faction. See 42.332 and 42.333 for restrictions. Remnants may be retained for future use (42.336).
B. SPECIALIZED UNIT FORCE POOL INCREASES: 2, 3, 4, 5... Each result allows the alliance faction to add one factor of airborne, Chindits, marines or commandos to the force pool of an eligible major power in that alliance faction, up to the maximum allowed for each major power.
C. FORTIFICATIONS: 1 and five BRPs for each fortification, for a maximum of four fortifications per year, at the rate of one fortification per turn (EXCEPTION: Japanese fortifications do not require an RP expenditure). Instead of a fortification, two beach defenses may be constructed (32.53) or an island group may be fortified (32.61); this decision is made when the RP is triggered. Germany, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the U.S. only.
D. RAILHEADS: 2 and five BRPs for each railhead, for a maximum of four railheads per year, at the rate of one railhead per turn. Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Britain, and the U.S. only.
E. ROCKET BASES: Research results for rockets allow rocket bases to be placed, at no additional RP cost, as set out in 26.61. A "9" research result for rockets allows two rocket bases to be placed; a "10" result, four rocket bases; an "11" or "12+" result, six rocket bases. Germany, Japan, Russia and the U.S. only.
F. SYNTHETIC OIL PLANTS: 5 for each oil plant, to a maximum of two plants per year, at the rate of one plant per turn. Synthetic oil plants are produced at the start of the owning player’s turn and thus may be used as an oil source in the turn they are produced. Germany only.
G. INDUSTRIAL CENTERS (ICs): 5 for each IC, to a maximum of two ICs per year, at the rate of one IC per turn. Russia only.
H. WINTER PREPARATION: 3, once per year, up to a maximum winter preparation level of six. In addition, the European Axis and Japan may achieve automatic winter preparation results (34.442). Such automatic results do not count against the production limit of one winter preparation result per year. Winter preparation results apply to all members of the alliance faction which achieves the result. Germany, Japan and the Western Allies only.
I. SHOCK ARMIES: 2, 3, with two results permitted each year, to a maximum of six results. Each shock army result allows the Russian player to designate one 3-3 infantry unit as a shock army each turn. Shock armies may overstack at the end of the movement phase and may attack in excess of the normal limit of two ground units from a hex. Shock armies may be taken as combat losses in the same manner as other ground units, but otherwise are eliminated once ground combat is resolved, prior to advancing after combat, regardless of the outcome. Shock armies may not be used for overruns, seaborne invasions, exploitation attacks or attritions. Russia only.

42.25 ATOMIC:
A. URANIUM PLANTS: 8 for each uranium plant, at the rate of one plant per year. Uranium plants are a high technology project. RPs may not be invested in uranium plants until the 1942 YSS. Uranium plants do not begin to produce material for atomic bombs until an "8" or greater research result for uranium separation has been achieved. Germany, Russia and the U.S. only.
B. PLUTONIUM REACTORS: 6 for each plutonium reactor, at the rate of one plutonium reactor per year. Plutonium reactors are a high technology project. RPs may not be allocated to the production of plutonium reactors until the 1943 YSS. Plutonium reactors do not begin to produce material for atomic bombs until an "8" or greater research result for plutonium production has been achieved. Germany, Russia and the U.S. only.

42.26 INTELLIGENCE:
A. CODEBREAKING: European codebreaking ("Ultra") and Pacific codebreaking ("Magic") production results are achieved separately - the Western Allies may achieve one result of each type each year. Codebreaking production results are announced at the end of the research phase, immediately before Ultra and Magic cards are drawn (48.11).
B. ULTRA: 3, with one result permitted each year. Germany and Britain only.
C. MAGIC: 3, with one result permitted each year. Japan and the U.S. only.
D. RUSSIAN OCCUPATION POLICIES: 4, 5, 6, with a maximum of three results permitted each game. Each Russian occupation policies result permits Germany to build one Vlasov infantry factor each turn once Germany and Russia are at war. Germany only.
E. CHINESE OCCUPATION POLICES: 4, with a maximum of one result permitted each game. A Chinese occupation policies result permits Japan to build one Wang infantry factor each turn, up to a limit of one 1-2 and one 2-2 infantry unit for each of Peking, Nanking, Shanghai, Canton and Chungking controlled by Japan. Japan only.
F. INDIAN SUBVERSION: 4, with a maximum of one result permitted each game. An Indian subversion result permits Japan to build one Indian National Army infantry factor and one Indian partisan each turn up to a limit of one 1-2 and one 2-2 infantry unit for each of Calcutta, Colombo, Dacca and Rangoon controlled by Japan, plus two Indian partisans regardless of the number of objectives controlled (72.92B, 72.93B). Japan only.
G. MOSLEM UNREST: 2, 3, with two results permitted each year. Each Moslem unrest result allows Germany to add one Middle Eastern partisan to its force pool. Germany only.
H. WESTERN ALLIED PARTISANS: 2, 3, with two results permitted each year. Each Western Allied partisan result allows the Western Allies to add one Western Allied partisan to their force pool. Western Allies only.
I. RUSSIAN PARTISANS: 2, 3, with two results permitted each year. Each Russian partisan result allows Russia to add one Communist partisan to its force pool. Russia only.

42.3 FORCE POOL INCREASES:
42.31 FORCE POOLS: Force pool increases may be generated either by mobilization (36.3) or by the investment of RPs in production (42.2).
42.32 TIMING: Force pool additions are announced during the unit construction phase following the result, whether or not they are constructed at that time.
42.33 FORCE POOL LIMITS: Each major power is limited to the number of units set out on its scenario card. In addition, the following restrictions apply:

42.331 AIR UNITS: Army and naval air units may be added to force pools by either mobilization or production. Interceptor, strategic bomber, air transport and jet force pools may be increased only by production, subject to the following restrictions:
A. JETS: Jets are produced, at no additional RP cost, when research results for jets are achieved.
B. STRATEGIC BOMBERS: Strategic bombers may not be produced by a major power which has not achieved at least one "9+" result for strategic bombers. The Western Allies begin with one "9+" result for strategic bombers and one British and one American strategic bomber factor already built. Western Allied strategic bomber force pool additions for European use must be allocated so the British and American strategic bomber force pools remain at equal strength, with any odd factor going to either major power at the Western Allied player's discretion (24.23).

42.332 INFANTRY:
A. AXIS: No more than three Italian infantry factors may be added per year from production.
B. WESTERN ALLIES:

42.333 ARMOR:
A. GERMANY: Germany may produce 5-6 armor units in the year after the outbreak of war between Germany and Russia.
B. ITALY: Italy may mobilize or produce 2-5 armor units.
C. JAPAN: Japan may mobilize or produce 3-3 armor units.
D. BRITAIN: Britain may mobilize or produce 2-5 and 4-5 armor units.
E. FRANCE: France may not mobilize or produce armor units. If France has been conquered, Britain may produce one Free French 3-5 armor unit if Paris is under Allied control.
F. U.S.: The U.S. may mobilize or produce 5-6 armor units.
G. RUSSIA: Russia may mobilize or produce 4-5 and 5-6 armor units.

42.334 NAVAL UNITS: Fleet (destroyer, cruiser, named capital ships) and carrier (CVE, CVL, CV, CVB) units do not have force pools and may be constructed and repaired without any investment of RPs. Heavy and light ship construction is restricted only by the constructing major power's shipbuilding rate and shipyard capacity. There is no limit to the extent of submarine, ASW and transport force pool additions.
42.3341 SUBMARINE FORCE POOL INCREASES: Western Allied and Japanese RPs may not be assigned to submarine production until the 1942 YSS.
42.3342 JAPANESE ASW FORCE POOL INCREASES: Japanese RPs may not be assigned to ASW production until the 1943 YSS.
42.3343 JAPANESE TRANSPORT FORCE POOL INCREASES: Japanese RPs may not be assigned to transport production until the 1943 YSS.
42.3344 PORT PRODUCTION: Western Allied and Japanese RPs may not be assigned to port production until the 1942 YSS.


42.335 SURPLUS PRODUCTION: An alliance faction may defer the use of up to five BRPs of force pool increases from production for each production project until a subsequent year. No more than five BRPs of production may be carried over from year to year for each production project. Deferred production is announced during the unit construction phase in which the RPs are triggered (42.17A). Deferred military production may be used to produce heavy armor units even if the heavy armor could not be built when the military production was deferred.

42.336 PRODUCTION AND MOBILIZATION: The deferral of force pool increases from production may be used in two ways:
A. Some or all of the deferred production may be used for production for the same project in a subsequent year, whether or not RPs are subsequently allocated to that project.
B. Some or all of the deferred production may be used in conjunction with mobilization points to mobilize one additional air factor or ground unit, as the case may be, in the current or a subsequent turn. No more than one additional air factor or ground unit may be mobilized in this manner each turn. When this is done, the air factor or ground unit generated is subject to the delay associated with mobilization.
EXAMPLE: In Spring 1940 Russia has one military breakthrough and triggers an RP placed in military production, generating five BRPs of ground units. The Russian player adds one 3-3 infantry to his force pool in Spring 1940 and may retain the other two BRPs of military production until 1941, or add it to a Russian mobilization to generate additional ground units.

42.337 RUSSIAN PREWAR FORCE POOL ADDITIONS: Until Russia and Germany have gone to war or the RGT level is 40 or more, Russia may produce no more than five BRPs of air and five BRPs of military production each year. These additional units may be deployed without restriction (63.51C).