43. ATOMICS
43.1 OVERVIEW
43.2 STRATEGIC ATOMIC ATTACKS
43.3 EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC ATOMIC ATTACKS
43.4 TACTICAL ATOMIC ATTACKS
43.5 MULTI-TARGET ATOMIC ATTACKS

43.1 OVERVIEW:
43.11 RESEARCH: Atomic bombs may only be constructed by Germany, Russia and the U.S. Atomic bomb production requires the research results set out below. All atomic research except atomic general research is subject to the restrictions on RP allocation which apply to high technology projects (41.31C):
A. CONTROLLED REACTION:
B. URANIUM SEPARATION:
C. PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION:
D. ATOMIC BOMB:
43.12 PRODUCTION OF FISSIONABLE MATERIALS: Atomic bombs require the production of fissionable material from uranium plants and/or plutonium reactors:
A. URANIUM PLANTS:
B. PLUTONIUM REACTORS:
43.13 USE: Once all research conditions are met and sufficient fissionable material is available, atomic bombs are immediately assembled and may be used against enemy strategic, military, air or naval targets. The method of delivery and effect depends upon the type of target selected.

Each atomic bomb may only be used once. Is a rule required to make this clear? Disputes have arisen over more obvious points...


43.2 STRATEGIC ATOMIC ATTACKS:
43.21 TIMING: Atomic attacks against strategic targets are made by the moving player immediately after resolving SW combat.
43.22 DELIVERY: Strategic atomic attacks may be made only by strategic bomber or rocket against any otherwise eligible target, or by German advanced submarine against the Atlantic U.S. box.
43.221 STRATEGIC BOMBERS: Only strategic bombers may be used to drop an atomic bomb. Army air units used for conventional bombing may not make atomic attacks.
43.222 ROCKETS: Rockets may be used to deliver atomic bombs at a range of three European (two Pacific) hexes if a "12+" research result for rockets is in effect.
43.223 WESTERN ALLIED ATOMIC ATTACKS: Both American and British strategic bombers and rockets may be used to deliver Western Allied atomic bombs.
43.224 ADVANCED SUBMARINES: Germany may make one strategic atomic attack against the U.S. for each advanced submarine factor in the Atlantic SW box.
43.23 TARGETS: Strategic atomic attacks may only be made against eligible bombing targets (26.3) within range of the required base.
43.24 RESOLUTION OF ATOMIC ATTACKS BY STRATEGIC BOMBER: A strategic atomic attack may be made by strategic bomber if at least one strategic bomber factor is unaffected both by air combat with the defender's air units, if any, and the defender's SW combat dice roll. Once it is determined whether a strategic atomic attack by strategic bomber is permitted, the attacker announces whether he is making the attack.
43.25 RESOLUTION OF ATOMIC ATTACKS BY ROCKET: Atomic attacks made by rocket (43.222) may not be intercepted.
43.26 RESOLUTION OF ATOMIC ATTACKS BY ADVANCED SUBMARINES: Atomic attacks made by advanced submarines (43.224) may not be intercepted.

43.3 EFFECTS OF STRATEGIC ATOMIC ATTACKS:
43.31 ATOMIC ATTACK MARKERS:
43.311 PLACEMENT OF ATOMIC ATTACK MARKERS: A successful atomic attack results in the placement of an atomic attack marker on the target hex or in the attacked mapboard box, with the effects outlined below.
43.312 ONE STRATEGIC ATTACK PER HEX: Each hex may be subject to only one successful strategic atomic attack per game. If more than one atomic bomb is detonated in the same hex in the same turn, these additional atomic attacks are considered tactical atomic attacks against enemy air or naval units in the target hex (43.44) and have no political or resistance effects. Only one atomic attack marker would be placed. Similarly, subsequent atomic attacks against a hex which has already been subject to a successful strategic atomic attack have no political or resistance effects and do not result in the placement of an atomic marker.
43.32 POLITICAL EFFECTS:
43.321 SURRENDER AND RESISTANCE EFFECTS: Successful strategic atomic attacks trigger the following political effects:
A. GERMAN SURRENDER: The first successful strategic atomic attack against a target in Germany permanently reduces the German surrender level by three; the second such attack permanently reduces the German surrender level by an additional two; each additional attack permanently reduces the German surrender level by an additional one.
B. JAPANESE AND RUSSIAN RESISTANCE: The first successful strategic atomic attack against a hex in Japan or Russia permanently reduces the Japanese or Russian resistance level by three; the second such attack permanently reduces the target's resistance level by an additional two; each additional attack permanently reduces target's resistance level by an additional one.
C. BRITISH RESISTANCE AND U.S. ELECTION: The effect of a successful German strategic atomic attack against Britain or the U.S. depends on whether the Western Allies also have the atomic bomb. This is defined as having either a uranium bomb or a plutonium bomb which is assured of successful detonation.
o The first successful strategic atomic attack against a hex in Britain permanently reduces the British resistance level by three; the second such attack permanently reduces the British resistance level by an additional two; each additional attack permanently reduces the British resistance level by an additional one.
o The first successful German strategic atomic attack against a hex in Britain or against the Atlantic U.S. box permanently reduces future U.S. election results by three; the second such attack permanently reduces future U.S. election results by an additional two; each additional attack permanently reduces future U.S. election results by an additional one.
o In addition to the above effects, the first successful strategic atomic attack against a hex in Britain or against the Atlantic U.S. box causes the Western Allies to suspend hostilities against the European Axis at the start of the next Allied player turn should the European Axis player wish to do so (the European Axis player has the option of declining the Western Allied offer and continuing to fight). If hostilities are suspended neither side may engage in offensive operations against the other until the Western Allies resume hostilities. The Western Allies may resume hostilities at the start of any Western Allied player turn in which the Western Allies are guaranteed to obtain an atomic bomb which is sure to detonate. The suspension of hostilities between the European Axis and the Western Allies does not affect any hostilities between the European Axis and Russia or Japan and the Allies.
43.322 NOTIONAL HEX CONTROL: A hex containing an atomic attack marker is considered to be controlled by the attacker for the purposes of resistance level determination, DP calculations and surrender, but not for other purposes.
43.33 DIPLOMATIC EFFECTS:
43.331 ONE ADDITIONAL DP RECEIVED: For each successful atomic attack against an enemy target, the United States, Germany and Russia, as the case may be, receives one additional DP in all future YSS.
43.332 USAT EFFECTS: Each German atomic attack in Europe causes a deterioration in Germany's relations with the United States, as set out in the USAT Table.
43.34 ECONOMIC EFFECTS:
43.341 If a key economic area or IC is subject to successful strategic atomic attack, the owner immediately loses the value of the key economic area or IC; or 25 BRPs, whichever is less.
43.342 Each successful German strategic atomic attack against the Atlantic U.S. box or the Urals box causes the U.S. or Russia, respectively, to lose 25 BRPs.
43.343 For every three BRPs (round down) lost to a strategic atomic attack on a key economic area, IC or mapboard box, the construction limit of the defending major power is reduced by one in its next player turn.
43.35 OIL:
43.351OIL CENTERS: An oil center which is subject to a successful strategic atomic attack incurs the maximum possible damage. Brunei and Palembang may not be subject to strategic atomic attack.
43.352 SYNTHETIC OIL PLANTS: A successful strategic atomic attack against a hex containing synthetic oil plants eliminates all the synthetic oil plants in that hex. Another synthetic oil plant may be built in the same hex for the normal expenditure of RPs.
43.36 ATOMIC ATTACK MARKERS PERMANENT: Atomic attack markers may not be removed.

43.4 TACTICAL ATOMIC ATTACKS:
43.41 NO RESTRICTION: Tactical atomic attacks may be made against any hex.
43.42 MILITARY ATTACKS:
43.421 OFFENSIVE: An atomic attack may be made by the moving player against enemy ground unit(s) during the regular combat phase immediately before making the first combat die roll to resolve an offensive ground attack of 1:1 odds or greater against those units. The defending units must be adjacent to a fully supplied attacking ground unit or in a hex which is the target of a seaborne invasion. Atomic attacks may not be made during overruns, by airborne units which have airdropped, or during exploitation.
43.422 DEFENSIVE: An atomic attack may be made by the defender immediately before the attacker makes the first combat die roll to resolve an offensive ground attack against fully supplied defending ground unit(s), after the attacker has announced any offensive tactical atomic attacks (43.421). The combat round is then completed, with an automatic “a” combat result (43.424B). Defensive atomic attacks are permitted in any round of ground combat and against airdrops and exploitation attacks, but not against overruns.
43.423 NO INTERCEPTION PERMITTED: Atomic attacks against adjacent ground units may not be intercepted.
43.424 EFFECTS: Tactical atomic attacks against enemy ground units have the following effects in the ground combat round for which they are made:
A. OFFENSIVE: The defender automatically incurs a “d” combat result in that combat round without the need for a combat die roll.
B. DEFENSIVE: The attacker automatically incurs an “a” combat result in that combat round without the need for a combat die roll and the CTL of all surviving attacking units is reduced by one until the ground combat is resolved. The combat round in which the defender used the atomic bomb counts against the limit on the number of attacks which may be made by the attacker (41.925B).

EXAMPLES: The Western Allies attack two German 3-3 infantry units in a fortified hex at odds of 24:18. The Western Allied player uses an atomic bomb to assist in the attack. The result in the first round of ground combat is a “d”, which means the Germans lose a 3-3 infantry unit in the first round of ground combat without the need for a combat die roll. If the Western Allies had a CTL of two or more, they could make a second attack at odds of 24:9, with a +1 modifier to their combat die roll.

If the German player used an atomic bomb in defense, the Western Allies would incur an “a” result in the first round of ground combat without the need for a combat die roll. The Western Allies would lose nine factors, and their CTL would be reduced by one. Unless the Western Allies had a CTL of three or more, they couldn’t continue the attack (41.925B). If they were able to continue the attack, the odds would be 15:18, with a +1 modifier to the combat die roll.

If both players used an atomic bomb in the first round of ground combat, the second round of ground combat would be 15:9, with a +1 modifier.

Finally, if the Western Allies used two atomic bombs in the first round, they would win the combat unless the Germans used so many atomic bombs that they eliminated all the attacking units, because both German units would be eliminated (two “d” results), and any surviving Western Allied ground units could occupy the hex no matter what their CTL might be.

C. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS: If a player uses more than one atomic bomb in a single round of ground combat, the effects are cumulative. For example, if the attacker made two tactical atomic attacks in conjunction with a ground attack, the defender would incur two “d” combat results in that combat round.
D. MUTUAL ATOMIC ATTACKS: If both sides use atomic bombs in the same ground combat, each side suffers the effects set out in 43.424A and B. Thus both the attacker and defender could incur "a" and "d" results, respectively.
43.43 ADVANCED SUBMARINE ATTACKS:
43.431 TACTICAL ATOMIC ATTACKS: Tactical atomic attacks against naval bases and shipyards may be made by advanced submarine during the combat phase as set out below.
43.432 ADVANCED SUBMARINE BASING: Advanced submarines which attempt to make an tactical atomic attack must, at the start of their combat phase, be based in an operational port within 20 (Europe) hexes of the enemy base.
43.433 ADVANCED SUBMARINES IN AN SW BOX: Advanced submarines operating in an SW box may not attempt tactical atomic attacks.
43.434 AUTOMATIC SUCCESS: Tactical atomic attacks by advanced submarines automatically succeed.
43.435 RESOLVING ATOMIC ATTACKS BY ADVANCED SUBMARINE: A tactical atomic attack by advanced submarine permits the attacker to roll two dice using the "20" row for air squadrons on the Naval Attack Table (23.44) against ships in port, or the "20" row of the Strategic Warfare Combat Table (24.62) against ships under construction in a shipyard (26.76). A critical hit die roll is made for named ships damaged or sunk by an atomic attack (20.5241D).
43.436 ADVANCED SUBMARINE ATTACKS AGAINST MAPBOARD BOXES PROHIBITED: German advanced submarines may not make tactical atomic attacks against Allied naval units in mapboard boxes. For German strategic atomic attacks against the U.S. Atlantic box, see 43.2.
43.44 STRATEGIC BOMBER AND ROCKET ATTACKS:
43.441 RESOLVED AS ATOMIC ATTACKS AGAINST CITIES: Strategic bombers and rockets may make tactical atomic attacks against air and naval units in enemy bases or against naval units under construction in enemy shipyards. Atomic attacks against more than one of these three types of targets, or a strategic atomic attack against the same hex, require more than one atomic bomb. The delivery of atomic bombs against such targets is handled in the same manner as strategic atomic attacks (43.2).
43.442 EFFECTS AGAINST AIR AND NAVAL UNITS: For each successful atomic attack against enemy air or naval units, the attacker makes one unmodified dice roll using the "20" row for air squadrons on the Naval Attack Table (23.44) and applies the result as desired against any enemy air or naval units in the target hex. A critical hit die roll is made for named ships damaged or sunk by an atomic attack (20.5241D).
43.443 EFFECTS AGAINST SHIPYARDS: For each successful atomic attack against an enemy shipyard, the attacker makes one unmodified dice roll using the "20" row of the Strategic Warfare Combat Table and applies the result as desired against any enemy naval units in the shipyard (26.76).

43.5 MULTI-TARGET ATOMIC ATTACKS:
43.51 TARGET ANNOUNCED IN ADVANCE: If an atomic attack is directed against a hex containing more than one type of target, the attacker must announce his target in advance.

Hexes may be rich in atomic targets. For example, a German objective hex may also contain a synthetic oil plant, as well as air units. When an atomic attack is made against such a hex, the attacker must announce whether he is attacking the hex strategically or is attacking the air units in a tactical atomic attack. In this example, the synthetic oil plant would be destroyed by a successful strategic atomic attack against the objective hex, but would be unaffected by a successful tactical atomic attack against the German air units based in the hex.