46. ESPIONAGE
46.1 ELIGIBLE COUNTRIES
46.2 ESTABLISHMENT OF SPY RINGS
46.3 RESTRICTIONS
46.4 EFFECTS
46.5 ELIMINATION

46.1 ELIGIBLE COUNTRIES:
46.11 ESPIONAGE: Espionage is an intelligence project which may be researched by Germany, Japan, Britain and Russia.

46.2 ESTABLISHMENT OF SPY RINGS:
46.21 PLACEMENT OF SPY RINGS: A successful espionage research result of "6+" permits the immediate establishment of a friendly spy ring in either a minor country or a potential or actual enemy major power (EXCEPTION: Japan may only operate major power spy rings). The decision as to which type of spy ring to place and its location may not be deferred. The location of a spy ring is indicated by placing an espionage counter of the appropriate nationality in the target country.
46.22 TIMING: Spy rings are announced and placed immediately after all research rolls for that turn are completed, in the following sequence:
A. The Axis place their spy rings.
B. The Allies may use counter-intelligence results to eliminate Axis spy rings.
C. The Allies place their spy rings.
D. The Axis may use counter-intelligence results to eliminate Allied spy rings.
46.23 LOCATIONS FIXED ONCE PLACED: Once established, spy rings continue to operate until eliminated, but may not be shifted from one country or research category to another.

46.3 RESTRICTIONS:
46.31 RESTRICTIONS:
A. MINOR COUNTRY SPY RINGS: Each alliance faction may operate no more than one spy ring in each target minor country. Spy rings may be placed in the Ukraine prior to its activation.
B. MAJOR POWER SPY RINGS: The number of spy rings a major power may operate in an enemy alliance faction is limited only by the number of enemy research categories . A player may not establish spy rings in a current or potential major power ally. A major power may not assign more than one spy ring to each enemy research category at any given time.
Each alliance faction may place only one major power spy ring in each research category in an enemy alliance faction. Thus the Western Allies and Russia may each place a spy ring in Axis military research, for a maximum of two spy rings in Axis military research. This would not prevent either the Western Allies or Russia from also placing a spy ring in Japanese military research. No spy rings may be placed in Russian naval research, as there are no Russian naval secrets to steal.
46.32 JAPANESE AND RUSSIAN MINOR COUNTRY SPY RINGS:
A. JAPAN: Japan may not operate minor country spy rings.
B. RUSSIA: Russia may only operate spy rings in minor countries in which Russia may place DPs. This restriction is lifted once Russia and Germany have gone to war or the RGT level is 50 or more. For the effects of Russo-Allied cooperation restrictions, see 46.411C.

46.4 EFFECTS:
46.41 EFFECT OF SPY RINGS: Spy rings have the following effects:
46.411 MINOR COUNTRIES:
A. INITIAL PLACEMENT: When a spy ring is first placed in a minor country, even if it is immediately negated by enemy counter-intelligence, all enemy DP allocations to that minor country are revealed. During each YSS in which minor country spy rings are operating, each side must reveal its DP allocations to minor countries containing enemy spy rings before any other DP allocations are made.
B. DIPLOMATIC MODIFIER: Any diplomatic die rolls for that minor country, including die rolls modified by Russian subversion, are modified by one in favor of the major power operating the spy ring.
C. WESTERN ALLIED AND RUSSIAN COOPERATION: British minor country spy rings never modify Russian diplomatic die rolls and Russian minor country spy rings never modify Western Allied diplomatic die rolls. Before Russia and Germany have gone to war or the RGT level is 50 or more, British and Russian minor country spy rings do not combine to modify Axis diplomatic die rolls. If both countries had spy rings in the same minor country, an Axis diplomatic die roll for that minor country would only be reduced by one. Once Russia and Germany go to war or the RGT level is 50 or more, even if Britain or Russia has surrendered to Germany, British and Russian minor country spy rings are combined to modify Axis diplomatic die rolls.
46.412 MAJOR POWERS: When a spy ring is established in an enemy major power, the player establishing the spy ring assigns it to one of the enemy major power's research categories, with the following effects, even if the spy ring is immediately negated by enemy counter-intelligence:
A. The opponent must reveal the code names of all research projects, including general research, in the selected category to which RPs have been or are currently assigned. The actual names of the research projects, number of RPs assigned to each research project, current results and the assignment of RPs to production are not revealed.
B. While the spy ring continues to operate, the player establish­ing the spy ring receives a +1 modifier for his own die rolls for general research in the selected category and inf­licts a -1 modifier on the opponent’s die rolls for general research in the selected category. Since all research rolls are made before any spy rings are placed or removed, these modifiers do not take effect in the target category until the turn after the spy ring is placed, and the elimination of the spy ring by a counter-intelligence result achieved in the defender’s research phase does not remove the adverse modifier in the target category until the following turn.
46.42 CONTINUING EFFECTS: The effects of spy rings continue until they are eliminated. Thus a spy ring placed in a minor country requires the opponent to reveal his DP allocation to that minor country in each subsequent YSS, and a spy ring placed in a major power requires the opponent to reveal the existence of new research projects in each subsequent YSS. Similarly, die roll modifiers continue indefinitely until the spy ring concerned is eliminated.

46.5 ELIMINATION:
46.51 ELIMINATION OF ENEMY SPY RINGS: Spy rings may be eliminated in three ways:
A. COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE: For spy rings operating in either a major power or a minor country, by the application of an enemy "5+" counter-intelligence result, either when the spy ring is first placed or at the end of the research phase, whether or not he achieved the counter-intelligence result in that research phase (46.22).
B. OPPOSING MINOR COUNTRY SPY RINGS: For spy rings operating in a minor country, by the placement of a spy ring in the same minor country by an enemy major power. DPs placed by the opponent are revealed, then both spy rings are eliminated.
C. ENEMY CONTROL OF A TARGET MINOR COUNTRY: For spy rings operating in a minor country, if that minor country comes under control of an enemy major power, whether by diplomatic or military means. If the minor country was already under enemy control when the spy ring was placed, this method of eliminating minor country spy rings may not be used.
46.52 MARKER REMOVED: When a spy ring is eliminated, the counter indicating its existence is removed.
46.53 WHEN SPY RINGS NOT ELIMINATED: Spy rings are not eliminated when:
A. MAJOR POWER SURRENDER: Their creating major power surrenders; or
B. MINOR COUNTRY CONTROL: A minor country comes under the control of either the creating major power or one of its allies.