48. CODEBREAKING
48.1 OVERVIEW
48.2 MECHANICS
48.3 TIMING
48.4 SUBMARINE WARFARE AND ASW EFFECTS
48.5 TACTICAL EFFECTS
48.6 STRATEGIC EFFECTS
48.7 PEARL HARBOR
48.8 CARDS MAY ONLY BE USED ONCE


48.1 OVERVIEW:
48.11 INTELLIGENCE PRODUCTION PROJECT: Codebreaking is an intelligence production project. Each codebreaking result costs three RPs, reduced to two RPs after one breakthrough in general intelligence research, and reduced to one RP after two or more breakthroughs in general intelligence research. No more than one codebreaking result may be obtained for each theater each year. Codebreaking production results are announced at the end of the research phase, immediately before Ultra and Magic cards are drawn.
48.12 TERMINOLOGY:
A. "Ultra" is used to describe codebreaking in the European theater.
B. "Magic" is used to describe codebreaking in the Pacific theater.
48.13 ULTRA: The European Axis and the Western Allies may both place research points in Ultra. Ultra results only affect naval operations in the European theater involving the European Axis and the Western Allies, including Italian and German naval activities in the Indian Ocean. Ultra does not affect Russian naval operations.
48.14 MAGIC: Japan and the Western Allies may both place research points in Magic. Magic results only affect naval operations in the Pacific theater involving Japan and the Western Allies, including Japanese naval activities in the Indian Ocean. Magic does not affect Russian naval operations.
48.15 WESTERN ALLIES: Ultra and Magic are separate projects for the Western Allies. RPs are allocated to them separately, and those RPs must be triggered in different turns. For clarity, throughout the rules Britain is referred to in relation to Ultra and the U.S. is referred to in relation to Magic.

48.2 MECHANICS
48.21  OVERVIEW:  The European Axis, Japanese, British and American codebreaking ability in each theater is determined at the start of every game turn as follows:
A. The European Axis and Britain each have a distinct pool of Ultra cards, and Japan and the U.S. each have a distinct pool of Magic cards.
B. Each turn, at the end of the research phase, the German and British players draw four Ultra cards from their respective Ultra pools. Immediately after either Japan or the U.S. declares war on the other, and at the end of the research phase of each subsequent turn, the Japanese and American players draw four Magic cards from their respective Magic pools.
C. At the start of the game, the four Ultra and Magic card pools consist of eight Ultra or Magic cards each. Beginning in 1940, additional cards may be added to these pools by Ultra and Magic production.
D. Each type of Ultra or Magic card may be played by the owning player at specific times during either his or the opponent’s player turn.
E. The effect of an Ultra or Magic card may be negated by the immediate play of a corresponding card by the opponent (submarine warfare cards are negated by ASW cards, and vice versa).
F. At the end of each game turn, all Ultra and Magic cards are returned to their pools and the process is repeated in the following turn.
48.22  TYPES OF CARDS:  There are six types of Ultra and Magic cards: submarine warfare, ASW, tactical, strategic, wild card and blank.
A. SUBMARINE WARFARE: Increases the effectiveness of submarine warfare in an SW box or of on-board submarine attacks (Ultra: European Axis only; Magic: Japan, U.S.).
B. ASW: Decreases the effectiveness of submarine warfare in an SW box or of on-board submarine attacks (Ultra: Britain only; Magic: Japan, U.S.).
C. TACTICAL: Affects search chances for one naval combat round; increases Naval Nationality DRM for fleet combat in one naval combat round or for one on-board submarine attack; or modifies one harbor attack.
D. STRATEGIC: Permits one additional die to be rolled for naval interceptions; increases or decreases raider die rolls (21.5341, 21.538) by one; permits automatic interception of Japanese offensive naval missions on the Pacific front (American Magic only); or affects the USJT level used to determine surprise at Pearl Harbor (American and Japanese Magic only - 48.71).
E. WILD CARD (American Magic only) : The American Magic wild card may be used as any other Magic card.
F. BLANK:   Blank Ultra and Magic cards have no effect when drawn.
48.23  INITIAL COMPOSITION OF CARD POOLS:   At the start of the game, the composition of the card pools for each alliance faction are as follows:

Initial Codebreaking Cards - 48.23

 

Sub.

ASW

Tactical

Strategic

Wild

Blank

E. Axis (U)

1

Proh.

1

1

Proh.

5

Britain (U)

Proh.

1

1

1

Proh.

5

Japan (M)

1

0

1

0

Proh.

6

U.S. (M)

1

1

1

1

1

3

The European Axis are prohibited from having ASW and wild cards.

Britain is prohibited from having submarine and wild cards.

Japan is prohibited from having wild cards.



48.24  ADDING CODEBREAKING CARDS:
48.241  CARDS ADDED BY PRODUCTION:   Each Ultra or Magic production result allows a player to add one Ultra or Magic card of any permitted type to his card pool. The player does not announce the type of card he adds to his card pool.
48.242  RESTRICTIONS:   The addition of Ultra and Magic cards is subject to the following restrictions:
A. The European Axis may not select an Ultra ASW card.
B. Britain may not select an Ultra submarine warfare card.
C. No one may select a wild card.
D. A card pool may never contain more than three codebreaking cards of any one type.
E. A player may not discard Ultra or Magic cards from his card pool; the addition of codebreaking cards by production increases the size of that player’s card pool.

48.3 TIMING:
48.31  Ultra and Magic cards are played immediately before the resolution of the action which they affect:
A. SUBMARINE WARFARE: Submarine warfare cards are played:
B. ASW: ASW cards are played:
C. TACTICAL: Tactical cards are played:
D. STRATEGIC: Strategic cards are played:
48.32  ORDER OF PLAYING CODEBREAKING CARDS :  Code-breaking cards are played as follows:
A. SUBMARINE AND ASW CARDS:
B. TACTICAL CARDS:
C. STRATEGIC CARDS:

48.4 SUBMARINE WARFARE AND ASW EFFECTS:
48.41  EFFECTS: Each submarine warfare or ASW card may generate one of the following effects:
A. SUBMARINE WARFARE: The play of a submarine warfare card, unless offset by the play of an opposing ASW card, generates a +1 modifier for submarine warfare in the affected SW boxes for that turn. Similarly, the play of an ASW card, unless offset by the play of an opposing submarine warfare card, generates a -1 modifier for submarine warfare in the affected SW boxes for that turn. The numbers of submarine warfare and ASW cards played are compared for each of the possible submarine warfare campaigns:
B. ON-BOARD SUBMARINE ATTACKS: The play of a submarine warfare card, unless offset by the play of an opposing ASW card, generates a +1 modifier for all on-board submarine attacks by the alliance faction playing the card in the player turn in which it is played. Similarly, the play of an ASW card, unless offset by the play of an opposing submarine warfare card, generates a -1 modifier for all on-board submarine attacks in the player turn in which it is played.
48.42  MAXIMUM +/-1 MODIFIER:   The play of two or more submarine warfare or ASW cards more than the opponent still only generates a favorable +/-1 modifier for submarine warfare in the affected SW boxes or a favorable +1 or adverse -1 modifier for on-board submarine attacks for that player turn.

48.5 TACTICAL EFFECTS:
48.51  EFFECTS:   Each tactical card may generate one of the following effects:
A. SEARCH: If one side plays more tactical cards than the other, the side with the greater number of tactical cards makes one additional search die roll, and his opponent makes one fewer search die roll, in one round of naval combat.
B. NAVAL NATIONALITY DRM INCREASE: If one side plays more tactical cards than the other, the side with the greater number of tactical cards has its Naval Nationality DRM increased by one for either:
C. HARBOR ATTACKS: If one side plays more tactical cards than the other, the side with the greater number of tactical cards receives a favorable +/-1 modifier for each target in one harbor attack.
48.52  MAXIMUM +/-1 MODIFIER:   The play of two or more tactical cards more than the opponent still only generates one search effect, a single Naval Nationality DRM increase or one harbor attack effect. Additional tactical cards should therefore be saved for later use.
48.53  SUBMARINE MODIFIER:   The Naval Nationality DRM tactical modifier in relation to a specific on-board submarine attack is distinct from the general on-board submarine attack modifier from submarine warfare and ASW cards. Either or both may apply to the same on-board submarine attack.

48.6 STRATEGIC EFFECTS:
48.61  EFFECTS: Each strategic card may generate one of the following effects:
A. NAVAL INTERCEPTIONS AND COUNTER-INTERCEPTIONS: If the intercepting or counter-intercepting player plays more strategic cards than his opponent, he rolls one additional die for all naval interception or counter-interception dice rolls for that player turn.
B. RAIDERS: If one player plays more strategic cards than the other with respect to raiders, all raider die rolls (21.5341, 21.538) for one SW box are increased or decreased one in favor of that player for that player turn.
C. MAGIC INTERCEPTIONS (U.S. Magic only): Immediately after Japan has announced its air and naval missions in the combat phase, the U.S. may play one or more strategic cards in order to automatically intercept Japanese naval missions during that combat phase. For each American strategic Magic card which is not negated by the play of a Japanese strategic Magic card, one American TF may intercept a Japanese naval mission without the need for an interception dice roll. The U.S. player decides which Japanese naval missions to intercept once the Magic interception level for that turn is determined (48.32C). Magic interceptions are subject to the following:
When resolving a Magic interception:
48.62  TACTICAL EFFECT OF MAGIC INTERCEPTIONS:   When one or more American TFs automatically intercept a Japanese naval mission using Magic, the American player is considered to have also played a tactical Magic card to gain a codebreaking search advantage in the first round of the ensuing naval combat (48.51A). This initial search advantage may be countered by a Japanese tactical codebreaking card, which in turn may be countered by an American tactical codebreaking card, and so on (48.32B).
48.63  MAXIMUM EFFECTS:   Strategic cards may not modify raider die rolls by more than +/-1, may not increase the number of dice rolled for naval interceptions by more than one, and may not reduce the number of dice rolled for naval interceptions. There is no limit to the number American TFs which may conduct Magic interceptions each turn, other than the number of unopposed strategic cards played by the American player. No matter how many American TFs conduct a Magic interception, the initial search effect for each Magic interception is that of a single tactical card.

48.7 PEARL HARBOR:
48.71  PEARL HARBOR:   If Japan makes a surprise attack against Pearl Harbor (51.3), the Japanese player may, at his option, reveal one or more of his strategic Magic cards drawn for that turn in order to try to change the column used on the Pearl Harbor Surprise Table. Whether or not the Japanese player reveals any cards, the American player may then secretly play one or more of the strategic Magic cards he drew that turn. The USJT level used to determine the applicable column on the Pearl Harbor Surprise Table is decreased by one for each Japanese strategic Magic card played and increased by one for each American strategic Magic card played, with no limit other than the number of cards played. Strategic Magic cards used in the Pearl Harbor attack may not be used for any other purpose.

48.8 CARDS MAY ONLY BE USED ONCE:
48.81 EACH CARD MAY BE USED ONLY ONCE: Each Ultra and Magic card may be used only once each turn.
48.82 DISCARDS: At the end of every game turn, all Ultra and Magic cards, whether they were used or not, are returned to their pools in preparation for the next turn's draw.