50. DECLARATIONS OF WAR
50.1 TIMING
50.2 COST
50.3 RESTRICTIONS
50.4 REQUIREMENTS
50.5 EFFECTS
50.6 EUROPE - INITIAL SITUATION
50.7 PACIFIC - INITIAL SITUATION

50.1 TIMING:
50.11 DECLARATIONS OF WAR MADE AFTER THE DIPLOMATIC PHASE: Declarations of war are made after the diplomatic phase and the placement of newly activated minor allies and associated minor countries. Declarations of war may not be made at any other time.

Plan ahead! It is illegal to declare war on a minor country halfway through your move, when it suddenly turns out to be convenient. Always give your diplomats time to find a pretext for going to war.

50.12 DECLARATIONS OF WAR SIMULTANEOUS: Declarations of war made in the same player turn are considered to be simultaneous. Thus if the USAT level is 50 or more, the U.S. may declare war on Germany even if Britain declares war on a minor neutral in the same turn and this would have the effect of reducing the USAT level below 50 (50.53).

50.2 COST:
50.21 DECLARATIONS OF WAR ON MAJOR POWERS: A declaration of war against a major power costs 35 BRPs, subject to the following exceptions:
A. GERMANY - U.S.: There is no BRP cost for a German declaration of war on the U.S. or an American declaration of war on Germany.
B. JAPAN - U.S.: There is no BRP cost for a Japanese declaration of war on the U.S. or an American declaration of war on Japan, but Japan may not declare war on the U.S. without also being at or going to war with Britain, at a cost of 35 BRPs.
50.22 DECLARATIONS OF WAR ON MINOR COUNTRIES: A declaration of war against a minor country costs 10 BRPs, subject to the following exceptions:
A. BELGIUM AND LUXEMBOURG: Any major power may declare war on Belgium and Luxembourg as a unit by making a single declaration of war at a cost of 10 BRPs. If a declaration of war is made against only one of Belgium or Luxembourg, the other remains neutral and a second declaration of war, requiring another 10 BRPs, must be made before it can be attacked.
B. DENMARK AND NORWAY: Any major power may declare war on Denmark and Norway as a unit by making a single declaration of war at a cost of 10 BRPs. If a declaration of war is made against only one of Denmark or Norway, the other remains neutral and a second declaration of war, requiring another 10 BRPs, must be made before it can be attacked.
C. BALTIC STATES: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are considered a single country for declaration of war purposes.
50.23 MINOR COUNTRIES CONTROLLED BY MAJOR POWERS: A major power which declares war on a colony or a minor country which is allied to, associated with or under the control of a major power pays the BRP cost for a declaration of war against that major power and is then at war with that major power.
50.24 ECONOMICALLY PENETRATED MINOR COUNTRIES: If Russia declares war on a minor country which Germany has economically penetrated (69.21), Germany must immediately announce whether or not it will support that minor country. If it does, Russia must declare war on Germany at an additional cost of 35 BRPs or back down and forfeit the 10 BRPs already spent on the initial declaration of war on the minor country.
50.25 COST MAY NOT BE SPLIT: The cost of a declaration of war may not be split between two major powers.

50.3 RESTRICTIONS:
50.31 GENERAL RESTRICTIONS:
A. WAR BETWEEN POTENTIAL ALLIES PROHIBITED: A declaration of war may not be made which would result in war between the eventual Axis partners (Germany, Italy and Japan) or the eventual Allied partners (Britain, France, the U.S., Russia and China).
B. JOINT WARS BY POTENTIAL ENEMIES PROHIBITED: A declaration of war may not be made against a minor country if that minor country is at war with a neutral major power. A potential enemy major power may only become involved in a war between a neutral major power and a minor country by declaring war on the neutral major power.
50.32 DECLARATIONS OF WAR ON MAJOR POWERS:
A. GERMANY: Germany may declare war on the U.S. and Russia at any time.
B. ITALY: Italy may not declare war on Britain or France in Fall 1939. Italy may not declare war on the Western Allies once the U.S. is at war with Germany. Italy may not declare war on Russia.
C. JAPAN: Japan and Nationalist China are at war in Fall 1939 without a declaration of war. Japan may declare war on Britain, the U.S. and Russia. Japan may declare war on Britain without declaring war on the U.S., but not vice versa: a Japanese declaration of war on the U.S. automatically puts it at war with Britain as well. The outbreak of war between Japan and Russia affects USJT, but does not automatically cause either the U.S. or Russia to go to war with any other major power, regardless of the situation in Europe. Similarly, the outbreak of war between Germany and Russia does not cause Japan to go to war with Russia or the Western Allies.
D. BRITAIN AND FRANCE: Britain and France may declare war on Italy. They may not declare war on Japan.
E. THE U.S.: The U.S. may declare war on Germany only if the USAT level is at least 50. The U.S. may declare war on Japan only if the USJT level is at least 50.
F. RUSSIA: Russia may declare war on Germany only if the current RGT level is at least 50 (EXCEPTION: If Germany has an economic interest in a minor country that is attacked by Russia and Germany supports the minor country, Russia may declare war on Germany - 50.24). At the start of the Campaign Game scenario the RGT level is zero. Russia may not declare war on Italy without also declaring war on Germany. Russia may declare war on Japan only if the BRP value of the Siberian garrison is at least twice the BRP value of the Manchurian garrison (EXCEPTIONS: The BRP value of the Manchurian garrison is less than 30 BRPs or Germany has surrendered - 81.51B).
50.33 DECLARATIONS OF WAR ON MINOR COUNTRIES:
A. GERMANY: Germany may not declare war on any minor countries in Fall 1939.
B. ITALY: The only minor countries on which Italy may declare war are Greece, Yugoslavia, Arabia, Persia and independent French colonies (58.532).
C. RUSSIA: Until Russia is at war with Germany or Russo-German tensions have reached 50:
D. U.S.: Until the U.S. is at war with Germany, it may not declare war on any minor countries.
E. BRITAIN: Britain may not declare war on any minor countries in the Pacific theater.
F. CHINA: China may not declare war on any minor country.
G. JAPAN: Japan may not declare war on any minor country. Japan and Communist China are at war in Fall 1939 without a declaration of war.
H. VICHY FRANCE: Neither side may declare war on Vichy France unless Germany and the U.S. are at war or an adverse diplomatic result for Vichy France is in effect (77.51).

All minor countries in the Pacific theater except Thailand, which is associated with Japan, are either colonies of or associated with Allied major powers. Japan therefore cannot attack any minor countries without also going to war with the major power with controls them. French Indochina, which can be occupied by Japan without attacking it, is a special case.


50.4 REQUIREMENTS:
50.41 DECLARATIONS OF WAR ON MAJOR POWERS: A major power which declares war on another major power must, on the turn it declares war, either move forces into territory controlled by that major power or conduct an offensive or attrition attack against that major power's forces or forces of a minor country allied to or associated with that major power. (EXCEPTION: When the U.S. declares war against Germany or Japan, and vice versa, this requirement is ignored).
50.42 DECLARATIONS OF WAR ON MINOR COUNTRIES: A major power which declares war on a minor country must, on the turn it declares war, either move forces into that minor country or conduct an offensive or attrition attack against that minor country's forces.
50.43 MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS: The requirements of 50.41 and 50.42 can be met in a number of ways. The flight of air units over land hexsides in the target country is sufficient, even if no attacks are made and no forces remain in the target at the end of the movement or combat phase. Similarly, unsuccessful ground attacks or sea transport or invasions which are intercepted and defeated are sufficient. Units belonging to minor countries allied to and associated with the major power which declared war may be used to meet the requirements, but alliance faction partner units may not.
50.44 PENALTY FOR FAILING TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS: If a major power fails to meet the requirements of 50.41 or 50.42, its declaration of war is revoked at the end of its combat phase and the BRPs spent for the declaration of war are lost. If a major power fails to meet the requirements against one of Belgium/Luxembourg or Denmark/Norway, after making a single declaration of war against both countries, its declaration of war is revoked as against the minor country it failed to attack.
50.441 EFFECT OF REVOCATION: If a major power's declaration of war is revoked, the targeted country returns to its prior status. If the target was a minor country, its units would be removed from the board. If Italian entry into the war as a German ally is revoked, any German units in Italy which do not leave Italy by the end of the Axis redeployment phase are eliminated.
50.442 ADVERSE POLTICAL EFFECTS REMAIN: A revoked declaration of war still affects tension levels and, where applicable, diplomatic die rolls.

50.5 EFFECTS:
50.51 VIOLATIONS OF NEUTRALITY PROHIBITED: A major power may not attack the forces of a neutral country, violate its territory by moving ground units into it or flying air units over it, or attack enemy forces in neutral country hexes. These restrictions extend to colonies and minor countries controlled by potential enemy major powers. Air and naval units may enter hexes which are part water and part neutral land through water or part water hexsides (18.22, 21.21).
50.52 POLITICAL EFFECTS:
50.521 WHO GOES TO WAR: A declaration of war places the declaring major power and all its major and minor allies, associated minor countries and colonies at war with the major power against which the declaration of war is made, all its major and minor allies, associated minor countries and colonies.
50.522 ALLIANCES: If a declaration of war is made by or against a previously neutral major power, it brings that major power into alliance with all major powers and minor countries at war with the major power against which or by whom the declaration of war is made. No BRP costs are incurred other than for the one declaration of war, no matter how many other nations are involved. A major power that is the subject of a declaration of war does not have to expend BRPs for a reciprocal declaration of war against the declaring major power.
50.523 MULTI-PLAYER GAMES: A declaration of war by one major power against a minor country allows an allied major power to attack that minor country. In a multi-player game, where alliance partners are controlled by different players, the second major power may only attack the minor country with the permission of the declaring major power. This permission may be granted either on the first turn of the declaration of war or any turn thereafter, but once given, it may not be revoked. If two allied major powers cannot agree on how to proceed against a minor country, the senior alliance partner decides.
EXAMPLE: In Fall 1939, a neutral Italy declares war on Yugoslavia, but fails to conquer it. In Winter 1939, Italy declares war on France. Because Germany is already at war with France, Germany becomes allied with Italy, and therefore also goes to war with Yugoslavia and may take action against Yugoslavia without requiring a separate declaration of war against Yugoslavia. In a multi-player game, German action against Yugoslavia would be allowed only with Italy's permission.
50.524 NEUTRAL ALLIANCE PARTNERS: Germany and Italy may not attack the same minor country until Italy is at war with the Western Allies. Similarly, Russia and the Western Allies may not attack the same minor country until Russia is at war with Germany.
50.525 NO DECLARATION OF WAR REQUIRED FOR BRITISH ATTACKS ON VICHY COLONIES: Britain may attack Vichy colonies without declaring war on Vichy France, although this triggers an adverse diplomatic modifier for Vichy France and therefore gives the Axis the option of making a reaction die roll for Vichy France during the next diplomatic phase (49.633). Britain may not attack French Indochina before the Western Allies are at war with Japan.
50.526 RUSSIAN ATTACKS ON VICHY COLONIES: Russia may only attack Vichy colonies if Russia is at war with Germany and Vichy France is an Axis minor ally or associated minor country; or if Vichy France has been deactivated. Russia may not declare war on Vichy France.
50.527 BORDER WARS: Russia may fight border wars with Finland and Rumania without declarations of war (66.2, 67.2). Russia may attack Finland proper without a declaration of war if a border war escalates (67.25).
50.53 USAT EFFECTS:
A. Axis declarations of war increase USAT, as set out in the USAT Table.
B. Western Allied declarations of war decrease USAT, as set out in the USAT Table.
C. If Belgium and Luxembourg, or Denmark and Norway, are subject to a single declaration of war, the USAT effect is either +1 (for an Axis declaration of war) or -2 (for a Western Allied declaration of war). If Belgium and Luxembourg, or Denmark and Norway, are subject to separate declarations of war, USAT are affected by both declarations of war.
50.54 OUTBREAK OF WAR BETWEEN GERMANY AND THE U.S.: The outbreak of war between Germany and the U.S. triggers a pro-Axis modifier for the submarine war in the Atlantic. The timing of this modifier will depend on which major power declares war (25.66).
50.55 JAPANESE DECLARATION OF WAR ON BRITAIN:
50.551 AUSTRALIA, INDIA AND THE DUTCH EAST INDIES: A Japanese declaration of war on Britain places Japan at war with Britain, Australia, India and the Dutch East Indies, and causes the Dutch East Indies to associate with Britain at the start of the second British player turn following the Japanese declaration of war.
50.552 AMERICAN REACTION: A Japanese declaration of war on Britain does not automatically trigger war between Japan and the U.S. and the Japanese surprise effects (51.7) do not apply to U.S. forces when the U.S. and Japan do go to war. A Japanese declaration of war on Britain has the following effects on the U.S.:
A. At the moment Japan declares war on Britain, the USJT level immediately rises to 20 or by four, whichever yields the greater result. For the remainder of the turn in which Japan declares war on Britain, other USJT modifiers are applied normally. In each subsequent turn, all USJT modifiers are disregarded and the USJT level automatically increases by six at the start of each game turn.
B. American forces in the Far East are put on alert and the U.S. may ignore deployment limits in the Far East and deploy whatever ground and air forces it wishes in areas it controls. Both the U.S. and Japan may accelerate shipbuilding (27.7272B). These results do not affect the rate of American mobilization, which is based on the increases in USJT.
C. Australia and all British-controlled territories on the Pacific front, other than New Guinea and British island groups which have been attacked by Japan, come under American control at the start of the Western Allied player turn immediately following the Japanese attack against Britain and may not be attacked by Japan until Japan and the U.S. are at war.
50.56 AMERICAN DECLARATION OF WAR ON JAPAN: An American declaration of war on Japan automatically places Britain, Australia, India and the Dutch East Indies at war with Japan as well.
50.57 DEPLOYMENT OF AMERICAN FORCES:
A. American units may not be deployed onto the European mapboard or to the South Africa or Ethiopia boxes until the U.S. and Germany are at war (EXCEPTIONS: When allowed by the USAT level, Western Allied transports may be constructed and Western Allied ASW may be deployed from the U.S. to the Atlantic SW box; American units may NR to the South Africa box if the U.S. and Japan are at war).
B. American units may not be deployed onto the Pacific mapboard or to the Australia or India boxes until the U.S. and Japan are at war or as allowed by USJT results (EXCEPTION: A Japanese declaration of war on Britain, 50.552B).

50.6 EUROPE - INITIAL SITUATION:
50.61 GERMANY AT WAR WITH BRITAIN, FRANCE AND POLAND: The campaign games and 1939 scenarios begin with Germany already at war with Britain, France and Poland. No declarations of war are required to reach this situation, no BRPs are expended, no USAT effects occur, and these declarations of war may not be revoked.

50.7 PACIFIC - INITIAL SITUATION:
50.71 JAPAN AT WAR WITH CHINA: The Global War and Pacific campaign game scenarios begin with Japan at war with Nationalist and Communist China and at peace with the Western Allies and Russia. Japan may not attack any British possessions in the Far East, French Pacific islands or the Dutch East Indies without declaring war on Britain.