62. U.S. ELECTIONS
62.1 OVERVIEW
62.2 WHEN U.S. ELECTIONS OCCUR
62.3 DETERMINING U.S. ELECTION RESULTS
62.4 U.S. ELECTION RESULTS
62.5 POST-ELECTION TENSIONS
62.6 A SEPARATE PEACE
62.7 AMERICAN REENTRY INTO THE WAR
62.8 ATOMIC WAR
62.9 ALLIED DEFEAT

62.1 OVERVIEW:
62.11 The U.S. may not be conquered. It may, however, be pressured by adverse military and political developments into scaling back its efforts or even signing separate peace agreements in one or both theaters of conflict.
62.12 “U.S. ELECTION” A BROAD TERM: In most games the only “U.S. election” will occur after the 1945 YSS, which represents the U.S. presidential election held in November 1944, the results of which take effect in January 1945. However, a German atomic attack against the U.S. also triggers a “U.S. election”, which represents a complete Congressional review of American involvement in the war.

62.2 WHEN U.S. ELECTIONS OCCUR:
62.21 TRIGGERING EVENTS: A U.S. election occurs at the following times:
A. AFTER THE 1945 YSS: Immediately after the 1945 YSS, in every game.
B. IF THE U.S. IS SUBJECT TO ATOMIC ATTACK: At the end of any game turn in which the continental U.S. is subject to a successful German atomic attack.

62.3 DETERMINING U.S. ELECTION RESULTS:
62.31 CALCULATION MADE FOR EACH THEATER: The U.S. election result is determined by making a calculation for each theater, using the following modifiers. If the election is triggered by the 1945 YSS, then the results from both theaters are combined; if the election is triggered by an atomic attack, only the European theater calculation is made. If the result is 1 or greater, there is no effect on American policies or actions. If the net result is zero or less, a pro-Axis U.S. election result occurs.

U.S. Election Modifiers - 62.31

Europe

-#

Axis DP level, including neutral Italian DPs, as calculated when the election is held.

-#

For each atomic attack against a hex in Britain or the U.S. Atlantic box (-3 for the first attack; an additional -2 for the second attack; an additional -1 for each subsequent attack).

-1

For each current British surrender level below -5
(-6:-1; -7:-2; 8:-3; -9:-4; -10:-5).

+1

For each current British surrender level above -5
(-4:+1; -3:+2; -2:+3; -1:+4; 0:+5)

+5

If Britain is not in a state of surrender.

+#

Allied DP level, including neutral Russian DPs, as calculated when the election is held.

+10

If Japan has surrendered.

Pacific

-#

Japanese resistance level (zero if Japan has surrendered).

+20

If Japan declared war on the U.S.

+10

If Germany has surrendered.


62.32 BRITISH AND RUSSIAN DP LEVELS: The British and Russian DP levels may be negative when calculated for U.S. election purposes.

62.4 U.S. ELECTION RESULTS:
62.41 THEATER RESULTS COMBINED: At the end of the 1945 YSS, the U.S. election results in each theater are added together. For all U.S. elections, if the total result is positive, President Roosevelt wins reelection (or Congress endorses his leadership) and U.S. policy is unchanged. However, if the total is zero or less, U.S. policy shifts in favor of disengagement and the net result is implemented as set out below (62.42). Each result includes all higher number results.

U.S. Election Results - 62.41

Result

Effect

0

The U.S. ceases all offensive economic warfare, including strategic and conventional bombing, submarine strategic warfare and attacks by flying bombs and rockets, and may not make atomic attacks.

-1

The U.S. seeks to reduce casualties for political reasons. American forces may not initiate or continue ground attacks at less than 2:1 odds.

-2

The U.S. may not conduct full offensives.

-3

U.S. forces may not engage in any offensive operations.

-4

U.S. forces may not take part in attritions.

-5

U.S. ground units may not leave the U.S. box.

-6

U.S. air units may not leave the U.S. box.

-7

The U.S. signs a separate peace, with a tension level for that theater of 46.

If the U.S. election result for a theater is -8 or less, the U.S. signs a separate peace and the tension level for that theater is reduced by four for each additional election level: -8: tensions = 42; -9: tensions = 38; and so on.


62.42 RESULTS APPLIED TO EACH THEATER SEPARATELY: There are four possible U.S. election results:
A. ALLIED VICTORY: If the net U.S. election result favors the Allies, there is no effect.
B. AXIS VICTORY: If the net U.S. election result favors the Axis (zero or less), the U.S. will disengage in Europe, the Pacific, or both:
62.43 HIGHER RESULT MAY BE TAKEN: Germany and Japan may select a higher result in their theater if they feel it would be to their advantage to do so. For example, after a -9 result, Germany could impose a -6 result instead, allowing the U.S. to remain in the war on a restricted basis.
62.44 ELECTION RESULTS APPLY ONLY TO AMERICAN UNITS: The restrictions set out for U.S. election results 0 to -5 apply only to American units, including American-built partisans (EXCEPTION: If Britain has surrendered, U.S. election results 0 to -4 also apply to Britain.)
62.45 BRP GRANTS: The extent to which American BRP grants are allowed to the Western Allies or China after an election result of -7 or below is governed by the USAT or USJT level in the relevant theater (40.33).
62.46 SINGLE THEATER GAMES:
A. EUROPEAN SCENARIOS: In European scenarios, the Pacific theater U.S. election result is considered to be zero and is disregarded.
B. PACIFIC SCENARIOS: In Pacific scenarios, there is no U.S. election.

62.5 POST-ELECTION TENSIONS:
62.51 TENSIONS AGAIN RECORDED: After an adverse U.S. election result, USAT and USJT (as the case may be) are again recorded to determine the extent to which the U.S. resumes involvement in the war in that theater. Increases in the USAT or USJT levels reflect the impact which continued Axis or Japanese aggression has on American public opinion, even if the U.S. has signed a separate peace with Germany or Japan.
62.52 FOUR TENSION POINTS = ONE ELECTION RESULT LEVEL: For every four points the applicable tension level increases, the U.S. election result increases by one level in the corresponding theater, until eventually the U.S. can again participate in the war in that theater without restriction. Thus after an election result of "-3" for the European theater, USAT would have to increase by four before American forces could carry out offensive operations; by another four before the U.S. could conduct full offensives; by another four before attacks at less than 2:1 were allowed; and by another four before the final restriction, the prohibition against offensive economic warfare, was lifted and the U.S. could fully participate in the war in Europe.
62.53 POST-ELECTION TENSION MODIFIERS: U.S. tension modifiers which apply only after an adverse election result are listed distinctly from the normal modifiers. All normal tension modifiers also apply (EXCEPTION: The normal status modifiers for the number of major powers at war with the Axis are superseded by a +1 modifier for each major power other than the U.S. at war with Germany). The American oil embargo on Japan is considered to be lifted, but unless the U.S. signs a separate peace with Japan and the USJT level drops below 20, the U.S. may reimpose an oil embargo on Japan in the following turn, triggering a +1 increase in tensions in that and each subsequent turn.

62.6 A SEPARATE PEACE:
62.61 EUROPE: After signing a separate peace with Germany following a “-7” or worse election result, all American ground, air and naval units, airbases and rocket bases are immediately transferred from Europe to the Atlantic U.S. box (EXCEPTION: American units are allowed in the South Africa box if the U.S. is at war with Japan - 50.57A). This is done before determining any concessions from a British surrender (59.66A).
62.62 PACIFIC: After signing a separate peace with Japan, American units already in the Pacific theater may remain in, and move or redeploy freely to, any Western Allied-controlled hexes on the Pacific front or Australia, where they remain in play and may not be attacked by Japan without a declaration of war.
62.63 RETURNING AMERICAN UNITS MAY NOT BE ATTACKED: American redeployments from Europe and within the Pacific may not be intercepted by the Axis or Japan.
62.64 WAR CONTINUES: American withdrawal from the war in either or both theaters does not directly affect the rest of the war. All remaining Allied powers at war with Germany and Japan continue to fight. Play continues normally in the Pacific if war has not yet broken out between Japan and the U.S.
62.65 TENSIONS AFTER A SEPARATE PEACE: If the U.S. signs a separate peace with either Germany or Japan, the USAT or USJT level drops below 50 and is set according to the U.S. election result, with four tension points again equal to one election result level. If the election result were -7, the tension level would be set at 46; if the election result were -8, the tension level would be set at 42, and so on. Tensions may be reduced by German conciliatory policy toward Britain (59.75B).
62.66 AMERICAN REENTRY GOVERNED BY TENSION LEVEL: The extent of American involvement in the war after a separate peace is governed by the applicable tension level. As tensions rise, American involvement short of war increases according to the tension results, just as it did earlier in the game, subject to the following qualifications:
A. Mobilizations which have already occurred are not triggered again.
B. Tension results do not override U.S. election result restrictions. For example, USJT results which permit the deployment of American units to the Pacific mapboard are prohibited by a -5 election result.
62.67 AMERICAN ACTIVITY WHILE NEUTRAL: While the U.S. is neutral:
A. AMERICAN MOBILIZATIONS CONTINUE: The U.S. continues to mobilize each turn in a theater in which it was at war until it has completed all its mobilizations for that theater.
B. DPs: The U.S. receives five DPs in each YSS if it was at war with Germany. The U.S. continues diplomacy while neutral.
C. RPs: The U.S. receives five RPs for each theater in which it was at war. The U.S. continues research and production while neutral.

62.7 AMERICAN REENTRY INTO THE WAR:
62.71 RESTRICTED REENTRY PERMITTED: The U.S. may reenter the war in either theater if tensions increase sufficiently, just as is the case prior to the initial U.S. entry into the war. However, the restrictions associated with the U.S. election results apply after the U.S. reenters the war, so tensions continue to be tracked to determine when the U.S. moves from the -6 election result to the -5 election result, and so on, until it is no longer subject to any restrictions.
62.72 NO RESTRICTIONS IF GERMANY OR JAPAN DECLARE WAR: If Germany or Japan declares war on the U.S. while it is neutral, the U.S. immediately resumes full participation in the war in that theater and the restrictions associated with the U.S. election results do not apply. Germany does not receive any modifiers for submarine warfare as a result of a declaration of war on the U.S. if the U.S. has already participated in the European war.

62.8 ATOMIC WAR:
62.81 GERMAN ATOMIC ATTACKS: A U.S. election result for the European theater is calculated at the end of any game turn in which Germany successfully detonates an atomic device in the U.S.
62.82 U.S. DEFEAT: If the U.S. signs a separate peace with Germany as a result of a German atomic attack, it is considered defeated. The U.S. signs a separate peace with both Germany and Japan, even if the election result for the Pacific would normally mandate a continuation of the Pacific war, and the U.S. may not reenter or take part in the war in any manner in either theater for the remainder of the game. In most circumstances, this means Germany and Japan will win a decisive victory, but it does not preclude other Allied major powers from fighting on.
62.83 FAILURE TO DEFEAT THE U.S.: If a German atomic attack fails to force the U.S. to sign a separate peace with Germany, it has no effect on American participation in the war. Similarly, if Germany makes an atomic attack against the U.S. when the U.S. is subject to U.S. election result restrictions, and the U.S. does not sign a separate peace, all restrictions on U.S participation in the European theater are lifted. An atomic attack on the U.S. is an all-or-nothing affair.

The U.S. may not make atomic attacks unless it is fighting without restriction, and a German atomic attack on the U.S. lifts all restrictions on American participation in the European war. If the Germans, moving first, make an atomic attack against the U.S., the U.S. may try to retaliate, and the success of the retaliation may determine whether the U.S. keeps fighting or not. The Germans might want to think twice before making such an attack, for a German atomic attack on Britain or Russia does not automatically allow a U.S. response in kind, because of the American fear of German retaliation. Atomic war is a dangerous business!


62.9 ALLIED DEFEAT:
62.91 MAJOR POWER SURRENDERS: The game ends in a decisive Axis victory, without the need for a U.S. election, if:
A. France, Britain and Russia are in a state of surrender; and
B. Germany and Japan have not surrendered.